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Drugs 5

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zomovefa's version from 2017-10-28 20:43

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Long acting b2 agonist for asthma prophylaxis, Slower onset, lasts 12 hrsSalmeterol & formoterol-> MOA - Increase cAMP
Short acting B2 agonist for asthma rescueAlbuterol, Metaproternol, terbutaline, pirbuterol MOA - Increase cAMP
DOC for lyme disease in pregnant or childrenAmoxicllin
Tx for ALS, inhibits glutamatergic neurotransmission, extends survival of ALS ptsRiluzole
CCR5 Antagonist/Blocks GP120Maraviroc
CML DOCBusulfan
Sulfa drugs sx in a newborn baby while drug was taken during pregnancyDisplacement of bilirubin from Albumin and into the blood by sulfa drug
DOC's for a pt suffering from HIT (Low platelets & thrombosis - skin necrosis)Bivalirudin, argatobran,danaparoid, selective Xa inhibitor
Competitive GABA antagonistFlumazenil
Anti-Hypertensive medication that decreases BP while increasing AldosteroneFurosemide -> Increased urinary excretion of Na & Cl due to blockade of Na-k-2Cl cotransporter
A1 receptor stimulation causesContractions of uterus, sphinctor of GI and bladder, Increased BP but reflex bradycardia, Pupillary Dilation, Vaso constriciton Production of IP3 causing the release of intracellular calcium from ER
B2 receptor stimulation causesRelaxation of uterus, Smooth muscle relaxation(vasodilation, bronchodilation), insulin release, aqueous humor production
B1 receptor stimulation causesIncrease HR and contractility as well as increased renin release
M3 stimulation causesBroncho-constriction
Epinephrine affinityHighest for B2 then later A1
B-blocker + EpinephrineStimulation of A1 the most since b receptors are blocked -> Contraction of uterus
Serotonin norepinephrine reputake inhbitiorCocaine
Inhibition of ionotropic glutamate receptorsPCP
decreased sodium reabsorption and decreased potassium excretion from the distal segmentsace Inhibitors -> No Angiotensin II
5 HT3 antagonistAnti-emetic Ondanestron
5 HT2 antagonistAtypical Antipsychotics Clozapine, Cyproheptadine
5 HT1A partial agonistGeneral anxiety Buspirone
5 HT 1B/1D agonistMigrane Sumatriptan
Zileuton Anti-Leukotriene contraindicated inLiver failure pts
Drugs that causes erectyile dysfunctionHydrochlorothiazide, SSRI, Spirnolactone, Cimetidine, Ketoconazole, Alcohol, Clonidine
BleomycinDNA damage utilizing oxygen
Seminoma tx (MCC testicular cancer)BEP Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatin
Sitagliptans MOAInhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV
Vincristine SxAlopecia
Bromocriptine & RopiniroleDopamine receptor agonists
Selegeline / RasaglineMAO Inhibitors -> Decrease metabolism of Dopamine
PCOS pt trying to have her menses but not want to get pregnantOCP's
PCOS labsLow FSH, High LH, Normal Inhibin B
Cysteine stones txAzetazolamide
Furosemide sxMetabolic alkalosis -> Contraction alkalosis Due to extracellular fluid loss
Reyes syndrome affects what organelle of liverMitochondria
Zolpidem VS other BenzosHas different chemical structure in comparison to Benzos
Aminoglycosides contraindicated inMysthenia gravis causing decrease release of acetycholine
Severe Lead intoxicationDimercarpol
Topiramate teratogen effectCleft lip
Omega IncreaseLDL, HDL
Acute RA txCelecoxib Sulfa
Chronic RA txMethotrexate or Sulfasalazine
Drugs known to suppress REM & once drug is discontinued presents with vivid dreamsAlcohol, Barbituates, Stimulants, TCA, SSRI, Lithium, MOA inhibitors
H1 antagonist to treat motion sickness and vertigoMeclizine
Tx for parkinson symptoms of tremor & depressionAmytriptyline Anti-cholinergic
Cannabinoid agonistDronabinol
SSRI SxNausea, vomiting, diarrhea
CabergolineDopamine Agonist
DapsoneInhibits dihydrofolic acid (Leprosy & Pneumocystis pneumonia)
MirtazapineAlpha 2 antagonist -> Best used in pts with depression with insominia
Drugs contraindicated in QT prolongationQuinidine, procainamide, sotalol, amiodarone, dysopyramide, dofelitide, phenothiazines, TCA
Closed angle glaucoma txb-blocker(timolol), a-2 agonist(apraclonidine), muscaarnic agonist(pilocarpine), corticosteroid(prednisolone)
Open angle glaucoma txEpinephrine, b-blockers, hyperosmotics, protaglandins, carbonic anyhrdrase inhibitors
DOC of to treat Rheumatoid arthritis joint destructionMethotrexate
Arrythemia treating drug with 1) Lung Fibrosis 2) Thyrotoxicity 3) HepatotoxicityAmiodarone
Cocaine does what to heart?Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Wort drugs to withdraw fromAlcohol & Benzo -> Seizures
BenzocaineTopical anesthetic
Calcimimetic agent increases sensitivity of the Parathyroid calcium sensing receptor to calcium -> reduction in PTH. Used in chronic renal disease pts presenting with 2ndary HyperparathyroidismCinacalcet -> Increasing sensitivity of calcium receptors
Only B-Blocker contraindicated in Angina due to it being partial agonistPindolol
How to differentiate amide or ester anestheticsAmide have two "I" cYP450 & Less allergenic vs Esters have one Allergenic & pseudocholiestrases
DOC for RSVPalivizumab monoclonal antibody directed against fusion protein of rsv
Immune defciency that presents adolescent or adult lifeCommon variable immunodeficiency
When are non competitive or zero order drugs appropriateDeadly disease
Drug X 20mg causes 50% constriction VS Drug Y 40mg causes 75%Drug X is less efficacious than drug Y
Remove heat from skin in burn ptsSulfadiazine Endothermic
Ascarbose, MigilitolBlock alpha 1-glucosidase -> Post prandial hyperglycemia
Acetamnophen toxicityNausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
Metformin decrease pre diabetes to diabetes by37%
Diet and exercise decrease diabetes by57%
Brain shows demyelination with abdnormal giant oligodendrocytes some of which contain eosinophilic intranuclear inclusionsProgressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy -> AIDS
Volumeof distributiont(1/2) -> (0.7 X vd) / (7.0L/hr)
Focal granulamatous inflammationTemporal arteritis(Giant cell arteritis)
Fibrinoid necrosisPAN
Leukoclastic PolangitisWegners
Supine aspirationSuperior segment of the right lower lobe
Tender and freely movable lymph nodesInfection or inflammation
Non tender fixed lymphadenopathyLymphoma/metastatic carcinoma
Metformin and IV contrast for emergencyStop metformin, FLUSH, add N-acetyl-cysteine
What signals to turn off gluconeogensis(pfk1) and enhance insulin productionIncretin (Exenatide,Liraglutide)
What breaks down incretin?Dipeptidyl peptidase -> Inhibit by giving Sitagliptan,vildagliptans
Sulfa drugs sxAnaphylaxis, Rashes, Hemolyticanemia, Methhemoglobienmia, Disulfram reaction, Kidney stones, Interstitial nephritis
MisoprostalInhibits Prostaglandin E2 -> Vasoconstriciton & vasodilation -> Treats ulcer & induces abortion
DinoprostinePromote pregnancy
VarenicillinePartial agonist of nicotine Sx- Suicidality
Decreases conduction through the atrioventricular node and can also be used to treat A fib in pts with CHFDigoxin
Treat A fib in pts without CHFEsmolol, metoprolol, calcium channel blockers
Increased BPAlpha 1 stimulation
Increased ContractilityBeta 1 stimulation
Decrease total peripheral resistance & decrease blood pressureBeta 2 stimulation
PPAR VS PPAR-yFibrates Vs TZD's
HALF LIFES50% - 1HALF LIFE, 75% - 2HALF LIFE, 87.5% - 3HALF LIFE, 94% - 4HALF LIFE -> Just multiple the half life given in question to find out each half life
Rocuranium MOAMuscle relaxant -> Competitive inhibitor of acetylcholine
Prostaglanding A2Made by platelets -> Thrombaxane -> vasoconstriciton -> platelet aggregration -> Aspirin blocks this to prevent MI or stroke
Prostaglandin E2Vasodilator -> 1. Cardiac Keeps the PDA open Alprastodil, 2. Renal dilates the afferent, 3. GI increases mucus production for protection
Prostglandin I2Prostacyclin -> Made by endothelial cells -> Vasodilate -> Inhibits platelet aggregation -> Work primiarily on COX 2 -> Celecoxib inhibits this prostaglandin causing platelet aggregation causing cardiovascular deaths
Prostaglandin F2Vasoconstrictor -> Causes painful menstrual crampstreat with naproxen -> responsible for separating placents after delievery-> In semen hence why not have intercourse after 9 months -> Or you could ask the dad to induce labor Latanoprost & Carboprost -> abortifacient
AspirinIrreversible cox inhibitor Strong Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Antiplatelet, Anti-pyretic -> AVOID in children (reyes syndrome-Microsteatosis)
NSAIDSReversible cox inhibitor NO reyes syndrome, cinchonism
DOC for dysmenorrheaNaproxen -> Sx High Na
Gaba effect for back spasmsBaclofen
Acetylcholine stimulates M3 causingMiosis, Vasodilation -> Reflex tachycardia Increased hr
DOC for prgnant women with hypertensionAlpha 2 adrenergic agonist -> Methyldopa. Other drugs - Labetlol, nifedipine, hydralazine
Morphine like drug with the addicitonKetorolac
Topical NSAIDDiclofenac, Ketoprofen
Vancomysin sxRed mans yndrome Improper programming f the infusion pump
Inhaled SteroidTriamcinalone
IV steroidMethylprednisalone
Oral steroidPrednisone
Steroids for pediatricsBudesonide, Cyclosenide
Steroids that make surfactantBeclamethasone, Betamethasone
Topical steroidHydrocortisone
Steroid that penetrates membrane fastestDexamethasone
FLUDrocortisoneAldosterone in adrenal insufficiency
Steroid that block DHTCypoterone
Nasal steroidsFluticasone, Mometasone
Steroid to treat EndometriosisDanazol - Androgen -> Sx mascilinization, Voice deeping, obesity, hirsutism
Mast cell stabilizersCromolyn & Bedacromyl -> Sx GI upset
Inhibit absorption of triglycerides by blocking pancreatic lipaseOrlistat
Inhibit absorption of triglycerides by inhibiting lacteals responsible for absorbing triglycerideEzetimibe
Hypoplasia of nasal bridge, laryngomalacia, brachydactyly, underdeveloped extremitiesFetal warfarin syndrome
Isoproterenol MOAB agonist -> Vasodilation , increase cardiac contractility and rate
Epinephrine + PorpanololVasoconstriction
EpinephrineIncrease Systolic BP & heart rate
Nitroglycerin EffectLV-ED-P Decrease, Peripheral venous capacity Increase, Systemic vascular resistance Decrease
Organism produces an enzyme involved in acetyl group transfer to exogenous substances is located on the surface of the cytoplasmic membraneAminoglycosides -> Gentamycin
First line for depression and does not cause sexual side effectsBupropion NOT TRAZADONE
Bupropion does not causeWeight gain
Bupropion contraindicated inBuliemia nervosa, Aneroxia, & Seizure disorders
BUSpirone associated withSlow onset of action
BUSpirone used forPartial agonist 5HT. General anxiety syndrome BUT NOT Acute anxiety
TrazadoneAntidepressant for pts with insomnia
MilirionePDE3 enzyme inhibitor -> Vasodilation & Positive ionotropy(contractility)
Aminoglycosides inhibitgenetic code reading and protein synthesis by binding to the prokaryotic 30S ribsomal subunit
Rat poison antidoneFFP
Prostaglandin GlaucomaIncreased outflow of aqueous humor
Alpha agonist GlaucomaVasoconstriction in cilliary body
Carbon Anhydrase (Glaucoma)Decreased Bicarbonate formation in cilliary body
Beta blockers GlaucomaDecreased secretion of aqueous humor
Acetylcholine receptor antagonistAtropine
Immediate relief for Asthma & COPDB-agonist
Gingivial hyperplasia drugsCyclosporine, Phenyton, Diltizaem, Verapamil, nifedipine
RibavrinInterfering with the duplication of viral genetic material & Inhibit IMP(Inosine Monophosphate) dehydrogenase
FoscarnetViral drug that does not require intracellular activation and is known to bind in vitro with viral encoded enzymes such as DNA POLYMERASE
Insomnia treatment in ElderlyRemelteon -> Melatonin Agonist -> High affinity to melatonin receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus
BevacizumabVascular endothelial growth factor -> metastatic cancer for lung & colon
Ampicillin & AMoxcillin contraindicated inInfectious mononucleosis -> rash
Azithromycin allergy for chlamydia useDoxycycline
Aspirin Allergy useClopidogrel Irreversibly inhibits ADP receptors -> GPIIB/IIIA complex cannot be activated
LabetololNon selective antagonist of A1 & B receptor -> High Blood pressure
Higher partition coefficienthigher lipophilicity -> higher potency -> higher solubility
High solubilitymore anesthetic needs to be dissolved -> slower onset
MAC decreases as blood gas partition coefficientincreases, generally speaking
QuetiapineAntagonist of D2 receptors ->Increase Prolactin causes galactorrhea
RucuroniumAnesthesia -> Non depolarzing muscle relaxant
DOC for Chrons diseaseRifaxamin
TCA MOA1 Blocks reuptake of catecholamines(elevated-> sympathetic tone) 2 Strongly Anti-cholinergic (hot, dry skin, hyperthermia 3 Block alpha one receptors which normally cause vasoconstriction, blocckage will cause vasodilation causing blood pressure to drop 4 Blocks sodium channels in the ventricle or AV ocnduction as well causing arrythemias
DOC for SLEMycophenalate
Gabapentin SxSedation & Ataxia
Atypical antipsychoticsClozapine, Olanzapine, respiridone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone. Sx- Dry mouth, constipation, Sedation
Benzo,Barbs,Opiates, Alcohol all causeCNS depressant -> MCC of death during toxicity Respiratory failure -> Everything speeds when coming off drug -> MCC of death during withdrawal Arrythemia
MemantineDx Alzhemiers -> Blocks glutamate inhibition of NMDA pathway(excitory or addicition) -> increasing the action of pathway
HIPPPEHydralazine, INH, Procainamide, Penicillamine, pHenyton, Ethosuximide
MeperidineDoes not contract sphinctor of oddi / blocks reuptake of catecholamines/ No pin point pupils / Abused by drs
NaloxoneIv dose
NaltrexoneOral drug
FormicationThings crawling under skin -> Seen in Alcohol
Tourette DOCHaloperidol
Iron pills always taken withJuice because Vitamin C is needed to make no free radical formation
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Gout

Question Answer
Most effective treatment?Colchicine -> Blocks mictrotubules leading to blocking of all rapidly dividing cells
Current treatment?Indomethacin -> Blocks COX 1 & 2
Treatment in kidney failure ptsSteroids
Chronic/ Recurrent goutAllopurinol-> Blocks Xanthine Oxidase / Probenecid -> Increase excretion of uric acid by blocking the reabsorption of uric acid
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Pharmokiniteics

Question Answer
Taking acid drug with food will causeLess absorption
If you want an acid drug to absorb then give it withEmpty stomach
If you want a base drug to absorb then give it withFood
Base drugNeutral, Fat soluble, Crosses membrane, Affects the liver p450, not to use in babies or elderly or liver cirrhosis
Acid drugCharged, Water soluble, Does not cross membrane, Affects kidney GFR, not used in diabetic, nephropathy
Base overdoseGive acid
Acid overdoseGive base
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