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Drug Review

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Updated 2007-03-25 20:45

Summary

Memorize drugs related to each organ system of the human body.

Sections include

Cardiovascular
Endocrine
Gastrointestinal
Neuro/Psych
Reproductive Biology

Cardiovascular

Drug nameDrug type, mechanism
hydrochlorothiazideantihypertensive, thiazide diuretic
clonidineantihypertensive, sympathoplegic
methyldopaantihypertensive, sympathoplegic
hexamethoniumantihypertensive, sympathoplegic
reserpineantihypertensive, sympathoplegic
Guanethidineantihypertensive, sympathoplegic
Prazosinantihypertensive, sympathoplegic
Beta blockersantihypertensive, sympathoplegic
Hydralazinevasodilator
Minoxidilvasodilator
Nifedipinevasodilator, calcium channel blocker
Nitroprussidevasodilator
CaptoprilACE inhibitor
LosartanARB
Nitroglycerinvasodilator, release NO
Isorbide dinitratevasodilator, release NO
Digoxincardiac glycoside, inhibit N/K ATPase
Quinidineantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1a-slows/blocks conduction)
Amiodaroneantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1a-slows/blocks conduction)
Procainamideantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1a-slows/blocks conduction)
Disopyramideantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1a-slows/blocks conduction)
Lidocaineantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1b-slows/blocks conduction)
Mexiletineantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1b-slows/blocks conduction)
Tocainideantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1b-slows/blocks conduction)
Flecainideantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1c-slows/blocks conduction)
Encainideantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1c-slows/blocks conduction)
Propafenoneantiarrhthmic, Na channel blocker (class 1c-slows/blocks conduction)
Propranololclass 2 antiarrhythmic, beta blocker
Esmololclass 2 antiarrhythmic, beta blocker
Metoprololclass 2 antiarrhythmic, beta blocker
Atenololclass 2 antiarrhythmic, beta blocker
Timololclass 2 antiarrhythmic, beta blocker
Sotalolclass 3 antiarrhythmic, K channel blocker
Ibutilideclass 3 antiarrhythmic, K channel blocker
Bretyliumclass 3 antiarrhythmic, K channel blocker
Amiodaroneclass 3 antiarrhythmic, K channel blocker
Verapamilclass 4 antiarrhythmic, Ca channel blocker
Diltiazemclass 4 antiarrhythmic, Ca channel blocker
AmlodipineCa channel blocker
memorize

Endocrine

Drug NameDrug type, mechanism
Insulinfor type 1 diabetes, binds insulin receptor, toxicity: hypoglycemia, hypersensitivity reaction
Lisproinsulin, short acting
NPHinsulin, intermediate acting
Lenteinsulin, long acting
Ultralenteinsulin, long acting
Sulfonylureastype 2 diabetes, trigger insulin release via Ca influx
Tolbutamidefirst gen sulfonylurea
Chlorpropamidefirst gen sulfonylurea
Toxicity of first gen sulfonylureasdisulfiram like effect
Toxicity of second gen sulfonylureashypoglycemia
Glyburidesecond generation sulfonylureas
Glimeperidesecond generation sulfonylureas
Glipazidesecond generation sulfonylureas
Metformina biguanide, decrease hepatic glucose synthesis
Pioglitazoneinsulin sensitizer
Rosiglitazoneinsulin sensitizer
Acarbosealpha glucosidase inhibitor, decrased sugar absorption
Miglotolalpha glucosidase inhibitor, decreased sugar absorption
Orlistatlong term obesity management, inhibit pancreatic lipase
SibutramineSNRI, short and long term obesity management, tox: htn, tachycardia
Propylthiouracilfor hyperthiroidism, inhibit conversion of T4 to T3
Methimazolefor hyperthiroidism, inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis
Levothyroxinethyroid replacement
Triiodothyroninethyroid replacement
Glucocorticoidsdecreases production of prostaglandins and lekotrienes by inhibiting phospholipase A2
Hydrocortisoneglucocorticoid
Prednisoneglucocorticoid
Triamcinoloneglucocorticoid
Dexamethasoneglucocorticoid
Beclomethasoneglucocorticoid
GH used forGH deficiency, Turner's syndrome
Octreotide used foracromegaly, carcinoid, gastrinoma, glucagonoma (somatostatin analog)
Oxytocin effectsstimulates uterine contractions, milk let-down
Desmopressin/Vasopressin/ADHfor central diabetes insipidus
memorize

Gastrointestinal

Drug NameDrug type, mechanism
CimetidineH2 blocker, decreases H+ secretion by parietal cells, inhibits P450, causes gynecomastia
RanitidineH2 blocker, decreases H+ secretion by parietal cells
FamotidineH2 blocker, decreases H+ secretion by parietal cells
NizatidineH2 blocker, decreases H+ secretion by parietal cells
OmeprazolePPI, inhibits Na/K ATPase in parietal cells
LansoprazolePPI, inhibits Na/K ATPase in parietal cells
Bismuthbinds to ulcer base, provides physical protection
Sucralfatebinds to ulcer base, provides physical protection
MisoprostolPGE1 analog, increases production and secretion of gastric mucus barrier, decreases acid production
PirenzepineMuscarinic antagonist, blocks M1 receptors on ECL cells causing less histamine release; blocks M3 on parietal cells causing less acid secretion
PropanthelineMuscarinic antagonist, blocks M1 receptors on ECL cells causing less histamine release; blocks M3 on parietal cells causing less acid secretion
The Infliximab antibodymonoclonal antibody to TNF alpha, for Crohn's rheumatoid arthritis
Sulfasalazinefor Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn's. Combo of antibacterial sulfapyridine and anti-inflammitory mesalamine
Ondansetron5-HT3 antagonist, centrally acting antiemetic
memorize

Neuro and Psych

Drug NameDrug type, mechanism
Bromocriptineparkinson's, partial dopamine agonist
Pramipexoleparkinson's, partial dopamine agonist
Ropiniroleparkinson's, partial dopamine agonist
Amantadineparkinson's, increase dopamine release
Levodopaparkinson's, converted to dopamine in CNS
Selegilineparkinson's, MAOi type B
Benztropineparkinson's, antimuscarinic; improves tremor and rigidity, not bradykinesia
Sumatriptanmigraine, causes vasoconstriction, 5-HT agonist
Phenytoinseizures, Na channel inactivation, 1st line prophylaxis for status
Carbamazapineseizures, Na channel inactivation, 1st line for trigeminal neuralgia
Lamotrigineseizures, blocks voltage gated Na channels
Gabapentinfor seizures and peripheral neuropathy, increase GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter)
Topiramateseizures, blocks Na channels, increases GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter)
Phenobarbitolseizures if pregnant, increases action of GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter)
Valproic acidseizures, inactivates Na channels, increase GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter)
Benzodiazepinesused for anxiety, spasticity, seizures, detox, night terrors, sleepwalking; increase frequency of Cl opening thus increase GABA action
Diazepambenzodiazepine
Lorazepambenzodiazepine
Triazolambenzodiazepine
Oxazepambenzodiazepine
Chlordiazepoxidebenzodiazepine
Barbituatesfacilitate GABA action by increased duration of Cl channel opening (also IV anesthetic)
Phenobarbitolsedative, barbituate (duration of Cl)
Thiopentalsedative, anesthesia induction, barbituate (duration of Cl)
Secobarbitalsedative, barbituate (duration of Cl)
memorize

Reproductive Biology

Drug NameDrug type, mechanism
FinasterideAnti-androgen, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor
FlutamideAnti-androgen, competitive inhibitor of androgens at the testosterone receptor
KetoconazoleAnti-androgen, inhibits steroid synthesis, used for PCOS and hirsutism
SpirinolactoneAnti-androgen, inhibits steroid synthesis, used for PCOS and hirsutism
Sildenafil, vardenafilE.D. treatment, causes increased levels of cGMP, sm muscle relaxation
LeuprolideGnRH analog, antagonist when used continuously; agonist when pulsatile
Clomiphenefor infertility, partial agonist at estrogen receptors in the pituituatry gland
MifepristoneAbortifacient (prevents implantation), competitive inhibitor of progestins at progestin receptor
memorize

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