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Drug Classes + Antidotes + Drug Enzymes + Key Drug Toxicities

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faduyozu's version from 2015-10-08 05:57

drug class simple

Question Answer
-azoleAntifungal
-cillinPenicillin
-cyclineAntibiotic, protein synthesis inhibitor
-navirProtease inhibitor
-triptan5-HT18110 agonists (migraine)
-aneInhalational general anesthetic
-caineLocal anesthetic
-operidolButyrophenone (neuroleptic)
-azinePhenothiazine (neuroleptic, antiemetic)
-barbitalBarbiturate
-zolamBenzodiazepine
-azepamBenzodiazepine
-etineSSRI
-ipramineTCA
-triptylineTCA
-ololbeta-antagonist
-terolbeta-2 agonist
-zosinA1-antagonist
-oxinCardiac glycoside (inotropic agent)
-prilACE inhibitor
-afilErectile dysfunction
-tropinPituitary hormone
-tidineH2 antagonist
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Drug Classes

CategoryDrug
2nd gen H1 blocker (allergies)Loratadine
Erectile Dysfunction (PDE5 inhibitor)Sildenafil
DPP-4 inhibitors (inc insulin; dec glucagon) = Type 2 DM)Linagliptin
Inhalational general anethestheticHalothane
Benzodiazepine (1) (↑ GABA)Diazepam
Antipsychotics (neuroleptic) - block D2 receptors, Extrapyramidal SEChlorpromazine (-azine) & Haloperidol
Barbituate (↑ GABA, depress CNS)Phenobarbital
rid parasitic wormsMebendazole
Local anestheticLidocaine
COMT inhibitor (↓ catecholamine breakdown)Entacapone (periphery); Tolcapone (peri & central)
ACh agonist (Wet everywhere, DUMBELLS)Bethanechol
\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ PenicillinMethicillin
Antifungal (block P450, ↓ ergosterol)Ketoconazole
immunosuppressants; FK protein; dec IL-2Tacrolimus
non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers; muscle relaxantsAtrocurium
Antibiotic; 30s; protein synthesis inhibitorTetracycline (Doxcycline)
antiviral (inactive neucleoside analogAcyclovir
L-type Calcium Channel Blocker (dihydropyridine)Nifedipine
bisphosphonates; dec bone resoprtionEtidronate
SSRI (anti-depressants)Fluoxetine
block beta1-3 glucan synthesis in fungiCaspofungin
↑ insulin sensitivity (↑ PPAR-gamma), SE = weight gain & edemaPioglitazone
centrally acting alpha 2 agonist
(vasodilate - tx HTN; ADHD, anxiety, panic attack)
Clonidine
TCA (Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor)Imipramine & -triptyline
monoclonal antibodyInfliximab
glucocorticoid (like cortisol)Dexamethasone
nitrosurea; cross BBB; tx for brain cancerSemustine
macrolide; 50s inhibitorsErythromycin
Protease inhibitor (HIV therapy)Ritonavir
Beta blocker (↓BP)Propranolol
Antipsychotics (neuroleptic) - block D2 receptors, Extrapyramidal SEHaloperidol (& -azines)
Cardiac glycoside (↑ myocardial force; ↑ CO; for CHF)Digoxin
Methylxanthine (bronchodilation) (COPD & Asthma)Theophylline
PPI (↓ HCl)Esomeprazole
ACE inhibitor (↓BP)Lisinopril
prostaglandin agonistMisoprostol
Ang II receptor blockers (ARBs)Losartan
loop diuretic (Na-K-Cl reuptake blocker)Furosemide
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; dec cholesterolAtorvastatin
AchEsterase InhibitorsPyridostigmine
Beta 2 agonist (Asthma)Albuterol
GLP-1 analog (inc insulin; dec glucagon) = Type 2 DMExenatide
H2 antagonist (↓ HCl production)Cimetidine
5-HT 1B/1D agonists (migraine)Sumatriptan
TCA (Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor)Amitriptyline & -pramine
Pituitary hormoneSomatotropin
anticholinergic (tx for Asthma)Ipratropium
Nucleus Reverse Transcriptase InhibitorZidovudine
Benzodiazepine (2) (↑ GABA)Alprazolam
alpha-1 antagonist (blocks vasoconstriction; Tx HTN)Prazosin
increases granulocytesFilgrastim
Block LTC4,LTD4Montelukast (tx for asthma)
Block ADP receptor on Platelets (↓ release of Gp 2b/3a)Clopidogrel
↑ Anti-Thrombin IIIHeparin (Enoxaparin)
inhibits DNA toposiomerase II (DNA gyrase)Levofloxacin (fluroquinolone)
microtubule inhibitors (block polymerization of microtubules)Vinblastine
microtubule inhibitors (hyperstabalize microtubules)Paclitaxel
inhibits DNA toposiomerase II (DNA gyrase)Etoposide
platinum containing drugs, cross link DNA, tx for cancersCisplatin
blocks endothelin-1 receptor, used to tx pulmonary HTNBosentan
carbonic anhydrase inhibitorAcetazolamide
α-agonist (makes you dry), nasal decongestantsPseduoephedrine
vasodilate arterioles (↑cGMP = ↑ NO)Hydralazine
↓ TG by ↑ LPL = ↑ TG clearance from circulationGemfibrate
bile acid resin, blocks reabsorptionCholestyramine
Non-depolarizing, muscular blockers (bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and prevent ACh binding & activation )Atracurium
Depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, binding to and activate ACh receptor --> first causing muscle contraction, then paralysisSuccinylcholine
Atypical antipsychoticsOnanzapine, Clozapine, Quetiapine, Risperidone, Aripiprazole, Zipradisone
Generalized anxiety disorder,↑5-HT1Buspirone
Antidepressant, stop smoking, ↑ NE & DABupropion
Block aromatase activity (peripheral conversion of androgen to estrogen)Anastrozole
Block 5-alpha reductase (decrease conversion of Testosterone to DHT)Finasteride
Block testosterone receptorsFlutamide
Treatment for Infertility (pulsatile GnRH)Leuprolide
Treatment for infertilityClomiphene (clone-me)
MAO inhibitorPhenelzine
sleep aid (GABA receptor)Zolpidem
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Antidotes

ToxinAntidote/Treatment
5-FUthymidine (↓ RBC precursor cell apoptosis)
Acetaminophe, Cystic Fibrosis, contrast dyeN-acetylcysteine (regenerate glutathione)
Ach, AchEsterase inhibitors, organophosphatesAtropine, pralidoxime
AlcoholismDilsulfiram aka ANTABUSE (inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase = quicker hangover), Fomepiazole (foam ~ beer) – ethylene glycol, methanol
AmmoniumBenzoate, Phenylbutyrate or Lactulose
Amphetamines (basic)NH4Cl (urine acidification) - ammonium cholride
Anticholinergic agents, Antimuscarinic, Physostigmine salicylate
BenzodiazepinesFlumazenil (Ben get off the flu))
Beta blockersGlucagon
Carbon monoxide100% oxygen, Hyperbaric oxygen
Cisplatin (nephrotoxic)amifostine
CopperPenicillamine (pennies made out of ____)
Cyanide (CN)Sodium Thiosulfate (Sulfur + O2) (converts CN --> SCN --> excreted in urine), Nitrite (NO2), hydroxocobalamin,
Cyclophosphamide (anti-cancer, cross-link DNA), IfosfamideMesna (↓ acrolein → Hemorrhagic cystis)
Digitalis/DigoxinK+, Mg2+, anti-dig Fab, , Stop dig
HeparinProtamine sulfate (postive charge binds to the negative charged drug). Use Lepiridine if Heparain Induced Thrombocytopenia
IronDeferoxamine, Dexfrazoxane
LeadEDTA, dimercaprol (peds), succimer (adults), penicillamine
Malignant Hyperthermia, neuroleptic malignant syndromeDantrolene (↓ Ryanodine= ↓ Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum); D2 agonist (Bromocriptine)
Mercury, arsenic (GARLIC BREATH),
gold (heavy metals)
Dimercaprol (BAL), succimer (for kids)
Methanol, ethylene glycolfomepizole (inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase) (Ethanol, dialysis)
MethemoglobinMethylene blue, vitamin C
Opioids (pin-point pupil)Naloxone/Naltrexone
Salicylates (aspirin)NaHCO3 (urine alkalinization) - bicarb
TCAsNaHCO3 (serum alkalinization)
Theophylline (caffeine) – cardiotoxicBeta blocker
TMP/SMX or MethotrexateLeucovorin aka folinic acid
Torsades de pointesMg+/K+
tPA, streptokinaseAminocaproic acid
WarfarinVitamin K, fresh frozen plasma
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Drug Enzymes

Question Answer
6-mercaptopurineblocks purine synthesis (blocks PRPP synthesis)
Hydroxyurea↓ ribonucleotide reductase (blocks Ribonucleotides --> Deoxyribonucleotides)
5-Flurouracil↓ thymidylate synthase (↓ thymidine = ↓ DNA = death) (pyrimidine analog) uracil + methyl = THYMDINE ((bad uracil = bad thymidine)
Methotraxate/ Trimethoprim (Trim)↓ dihydrofolate reductase (↓dTMP)
Mycophenolate↓ inosine monophophate dehydrogenase
Fluoroquinolones↓ prokaryotic topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) (↓ in the ligase domain of Topoisomerase II)
Eotposide↓DNA gyrase (prokaryotic topoisomerase II) (anti-cancer)
Chloramphenicolinhibits 50s peptidyltransferase
Macrolide (Erythromycin)binds 50s, blocks translocation
Tetracyclinesbinds 30s, blocks attachment of tRNA
Rifampinblocks RNA polymerase, ↑ CytP450 (revs up CytP450)
Filgrastimgranulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (↑ granulocytes = neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils)
Aspirininhibits COX (↓ TXA2); normal TXA2 = ↑ platelet aggregation, ↑ vaso tone (vasoconstriction), ↑ broncho tone (bronchoconstriction). "SE = ULCERS, Tinnitus, Reye syndrome"
Warfarinepoxide reductase ( ↓ Vit K carboxylation)
Acetazolamidecarbonic anhydrase inhibitor (↓ bicarb in body = ↑ renal excretion of bicarb into urine), altitude sickness
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Question Answer
ATRAAML - M3 t(15;17)
Cladribineadenosine deaminase inhibitor (makes a SCID like state - tx for Hairy Cell Leukemia - Mature B-cell tumor)
Sulfonamides↓dihydropeterote synthesis (upstream from dyhydrofolate synthesis), ↓ Folic acid
Imatinibt(9;22) philadelphia chromosome bcr-abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tx for CML
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other drugs

Question Answer
Eptifabatideblock Gp 2b/3a receptor, ↓ platelet aggregation, use in NON-ST-Elevated MI~ (ischemia)
tPA↑ plasmin, clot-busting drug, use in ST-Elevated MI (infarction = transmural)
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Signature Drug Toxicities

ToxicityDrug
Acne + Immunosuppression + HTN + Hyperglycemia + OsteoporosisGlucocorticosteroids
AgranulocytosisClozapine, Chloramphenical, Anti-thyroid, Dapsone (TMP/SMX substitute), Colchicine (stabilizes microtubules)
AngioedemaACE-inhibitors, ARBs
Aplastic AnemiaChloramphenicol, NSAIDs, Benzene
Atropine-like Side EffectsTricyclics
Bradycardia, impotence, asthma excerbationbeta-blockers
CardiotoxicityDoxorubicin , Daunorubicin
Cartilage Damage in ChildrenFluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin & Norfloxacin)
Cinchonism (headache + tinnitus)Quinidine (Double Quarter Pounder = Class IA Na+ blocker to treat arrhythmias)
CoughACE Inhibitors (↑ bradykinin)
Cyanide ToxicityNitroprusside
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus, Ebstein's AnomalyLithium (Txt w/ Amiloride)
Disulfiram-like EffectMetronidazole, Cephalosporins, Sulfonylureas (1st generation), (MC'S drink alcohol) = ↑ in acetaldehyde (b/c of ↓ in acetaldehyde reductase)
Dry mouth, sedation, severe rebound HTNClonidine (alpha2-agonist)
Extrapyramidal Side EffectsAntipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine)
Fanconi’s SyndromeExpired tetracycline
Fatal Hepatotoxicity (necrosis)Valproic Acid, Halothane, Acetaminophen
First dose orthostatic hypotensionalpha1-blockers (-zosin)
Flacial Redness & FlushingNiacin (B3) --> prevent w/ Aspirin (Niacin can be made in liver from Tryptophan)
Gingival hyperplasia + hirsutism, anemia + teratogen (fetal hydantoin syndrome)Phenytoin
Gray Baby SyndromeChloramphenicol
Gray Man SyndromeAmiodarone
GynecomastiaCimetidine, Azoles, Spironolactone, Digitalis
Hemolytic Anemia in G6PD-deficiencySulfonamides, Isoniazid, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Primaquine
HepatitisIsoniazid (INH --> N = neurotoxicity = prevent w/ B6, H = hepatotoxicity)
HepatotoxicityAmiodarone (PFT, LFT, TFT), Lovastatin (HMG-CoA reductase = ↓LDL ), Clofibrate (Fibrates = ↓TGs)
HypercalcemiaHCTZ (Na/Cl) (loops loose Ca2+)
Hypertrichosis (excessive hair growth)Minoxidil (Rogaine)
HypokalemiaLoop diuretics (Na,2K,Cl), Thiazide
HypocalcemiaLoop diuretics (loop = loose Ca2+ vs. Thiazide = do not loose Ca2+)
Hot Flashes, FlushingNiacin, Tamoxifen, Ca++ Channel Blockers
Increase QT interval (Torsades de pointes - V-fib)Macrolides, Chloroquine, Haloperidol, Risperidone, Rotonavir, Quinidine (Class IA Na+ blocker), Sotalol (Class III K+ blocker)
Induce CP450Barbiturates – Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Rifampin (Cut Carbs Before Getting Ripped, Son)
Inhibit CP450Cimetidine, Ketoconazole (MAGIC RACKS in GQ)
Interstitial NephritisMethicillin, NSAIDs (except Aspirin), Furosemide, Sulfonamides
Malignant HyperthermiaSuccinylcholine (Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocker)
Metabolic AlkalosisLoop diuretics
Monday DiseaseNitroglycerin , Industrial exposure → tolerance during week → loss of tolerance during weekend → headache, dizziness upon re-exposure
Myositis (increased Creatine Kinase)Statins, Fibrates (Clofibrate), Glucocorticoids, Colchicine, IFN-alpha
NephrotoxicityCyclosporin, Amphotericin B
Nephrotoxicity + OtotoxicityAminoglycoside, Vancomycin, Loop Diuretics, Cisplatin
Orange (Red) Body FluidsRifampin
OsteoporosisHeparin, Corticosteroids
OtotoxicityAminoglycosides
Phocomelia "seal limbs"Thalidomide
PhotosensitivitySulfanamides, Amiodarone, Tetracycline (SAT for photo) (Sulfanamides = antibiotic, sulfonylurea, loop & HCTZ diuretics)
Positive Coombs’ TestMethyldopa
PriapismTrazodone (TrazoBONE)
Pseudomembranous colitisClindamycin & Ampicillin
Pulmonary FibrosisBleomycin, Amiodarone (PFT, LFT, TFT)
Pulmonary Hypertension (RVH)Fenfluramine (FEN-PEN Anti-obesity meds)
Red Man SyndromeVancomycin
Reflexive Tachycardiaany med that vasodilates (CCB = Nefidipine, Nitrates, Hydralazine)
RhabdomyolysisStatins & Fibrates (Lovastatin, Clofibrate)
Severe HTN with TyramineMAOIs
Lupus-like SyndromeHydralazine, INH, Phenytoin, Procainamide (Class IA anti-arrhythmic - blocks Na+ channels) (SHIPP)
Sexual dysfunction ( ↓ orgasm, ↓libido)SSRIs
SIADHCarbamazepine (anti-seizure)
Steven-Johnson SyndromePCN, Sulfanamides, Seizure, Allopurinol (Sulfa + Allopurinol)
Tardive DyskinesiaAntipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine) Clozapine=only antipsychotic to not give you tardive dyskinesia
Teeth discolorationTetracyclines
TinnitusAspirin, Quinidine (Double Quarter Pounder = Class IA Na+ blocker to treat arrhythmias)
Torsades de PointesSotatol (Class III K+ blocker)
Thyroid (hypo/hyper)Amiodarone (PFT, LFT, TFT)
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