hasanahatesscience's version from 2017-02-23 01:22

What is dna's job

Question Answer
what does DNA meandeoxyribo nucleic acid
what is DNA's jobto code for inherited traits
interheited traits includephysical (eye and hair colour) mental (intelligence, mental illness, autism)
this can pass down illnessesdiabetes, alzheimers and heart issues
whats the structure of DNA like?it has the shape of a double helix (twisted ladder)
"rungs of the ladder"Nitrogeneous Bases (A C T and G)
"uprights of the ladder"made of sugar and phosphate

What is dna made of

Question Answer
Dna is made of NUCLEOTIDES CONNECTED BY COVALENT BONDS ( hydrogen bonds)
nucleotides are made ofphosphate deoxyribose sugar and nitrogenous base
there are 2 categories of nitrgenous basespurines and pyridmidines
purines have 2 rings. A = adenine G = guanine
pyrimidines have 1 ringT = Thymine C = Cytosine
A goes with T and forms2 hydrogen bonds
G goes with C and forms3 hydrogen bonds

DNA Packaging

Question Answer
Think of DNA as a long thin threadin order to not get tangled, it is rolled around "spools" called HISTONE proteins
a number of histone proteins and DNA are wrapped as a unitcalled a NUCLEOSOME
The nucleosomes are super wrappeduntil a CHROMOSONE is formed
Human body cells have how many chromosones23 pairs of chromosones (PLOIDY-normal cell count)
Human body cells are DIPLOIDmeaning having paired chromosones. xx is girl Xy is boy
HAPLOID is havingsingleton chromosones (sperm, egg cell)

Cell Reproduction

Question Answer
Sexualsperm and egg combine to from embryo. 2 haploid cells combine to form a ZYGOTE
Asexualan organism copies its DNA and creates new cells (identical daughter cells) does not need a partner and fast!

Types of Asexual Reproduction

Question Answer
Fissioncell copies DNA in bacteria
BuddingDNA DOUBLES (yeast, hydra)
Vegatatine Propagationin leaves, leaflets drop into the soil and grow
Rhyzomes or stolen seeds stem of a plant that forms new roots and shoots
Adventious shootsdrops roots that grow (trees)
Clonal communitiesone tree being planted makes a bunch grow over the years (burch and poplar trees)
Sporulationfound in fungi (moulds) where organism creates haploid cells that grow into adults
Fragmentationbreaking and reproducing
Agamogenesisunferttilized egg can devlop into an adult "VIRGIN BIRTH" (bees, wasps, reptiles, birds)

Ways of transportation :

Question Answer
Diffusionhigh to low conc (O2)
Osmosishigh to low conc in water
Facilitated Diffusionusing pores to move stuff from high to low
Active Transportcell burns engery to activate pores to move ions
Endocytosisobtaining/getting stuff in

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