DNA Replication; RNA Transcription and Translation

xehocuwi's version from 2017-10-23 02:36

Section 1

Question Answer
Helicaseseparates two DNA nucleotide strands; unzips them by breaking hydrogen bonds between Nitrogenous Bases
DNA Polymerase IIIbinds to parent strand and synthesizes daughter strand by adding DNA nucleotide to 3' end
Primasesynthesizes RNA primer (which is the short RNA molecule that is complementary to the template Parental Strand
DNA Polymerase Ireplaces RNA primer with DNA
Triphosphate DeoxyribonucleotidesDNA nucleotides with 3 phosphate groups that release energy when terminal phosphate group breaks off; this energy released is used by DNA Polymerase III
Ligasejoins Okazaki Fragments together
Topoisomerasesin Bacterial DNA Replication; removes supercoils in DNA ahead of Replication Fork so replication does not stop due to the coils
DNA Polymerase Aphla2initiates replication and synthesis of Primer
DNA Polymerase Deltaelongates Leading Strand
DNA Polymerase Epsilonelongates Lagging Strand
DNA Polymerase Gammareplicates Mitochondrial DNA

Section 2

Question Answer
TranscriptionDNA is copied as RNA nucleotide sequence
TranslationmRNA used by Ribosomes to synthesize Polypeptides
mRNAcarries genetic info from DNA to Ribosomes
rRNAcombines with Ribosomal Polypeptides to form Ribosomes
tRNAbrings Amino Acids to Ribosomes

Section 3

Question Answer
RNA Polymerasessynthesize RNA; bind to Promoter; also unzips DNA molecule; 4 different kinds of RNA Polymerases
Triphosphate Ribonucleotideswhen terminal phosphate group is broken, RNA Polymerase uses the energy to join Nucleotides together as it moves along DNA
RibozymesRNA molecules that act as enzymes; in Nucleus, they remove Introns and splice Exons together forming functional mRNA that leaves the nucleus
Cappingstep in transcription; cell adds Guanine nucleotide to 5' end of RNA molecules
Polyadenylationstep in transcription; at end of Gene, termination proteins separate RNA molecule and add about 200 Adenine nucleotides to 3' end
Splicingcapped and polyadenylated mRAN contains Introns that lie between Exons (the Introns must be removed before mRNA can leave Nucleus)

Section 4

Question Answer
tRNAmolecule that brings Amino Acids to Ribosomes
Acceptor Stem of tRNA3' end of the molecules to which as specific Amino Acid binds
Anticodon of tRNAmiddle loop that contains Nucleotide triplet complementary to specific mRNA Codon for an Amino Acid that the tRNA carries
3 tRNA Binding SitesA Site, P Site, E Site
A Siteholds tRNA bringing the Amino Acid
P Siteholds tRNA and growing Polypeptide attached to it
E Sitesite from which discharge tRNA exits the Ribosome

Section 5