Diseases and disorders - pathologies

lilypoh's version from 2016-04-03 12:44

Skin diseases and disorders


Question Answer
Warts a small horny tumour found on the skin, often on fingers and thumbs. caused by viral infection. HIGHLY contagious.
Verrucaswarts found on the feet. HIGHLY contagious
Herpes simplexa viral infection commonly known as cold sores; not confined to the mouth, can spread over the face and other parts of the body. Appears as small blisters which if left alone will dry up leaving a crust which falls off. HIGHLY contagious when active.
Herpes zostera viral infection commonly known as shingles. Adult form of chicken pox. usually affects spinal nerves and one side of the thorax contagioius when active.
Fungalinfections which attach themselves to keratinised structures like the skin.
Tinea corporiscommonly known as ringworm and can be found anywhere on the body
Tinea pediscommonly known as athlete's foot, highly infectious.
Parasitical infestationinfected by lice or itch mites
Pediculosisthe infestation with lice resulting in severe itching. This occur on the head (capitis), bod (corporis) and public (pubis) area.
Scabiesa contagious skin infection caused by the itch mite; characterized by persisitent itching and skin irritation
Pigmentation disordersdermatosis papulosa nigra, papilloma, vitiligo, albinism, choasma, ephelides, lentigo, moles (papilloma)
Dermatosis Papulosa Nigrais a condition of many small benign skin lesions, characterized by dark-brown papular lesions on the face and upper body, mainly found on a black skin
Papilloma- a benign epithelial tumour forming a rounded mass.
Vitiligoa complete loss of colour in well-defined areas of the face and limbs. A form of leucoderma (an abnormal whiteness of the skin due to absence of pigmentation); begins in patches but may coverge to form fairly large areas, most obvious is darker skins.
Albinismcomplete lack of melanocytes resulting in lack of pigmentation in skin, hair and eyes. Sufferers have poor eyesight and extreme ultraviolet sensitivity. Inherited condition
Chloasmabutterfly mask often caused by pregnancy and the contraceptive pill; discolouration usually disappears spontaneously at the end of pregnancy
Ephelidesfreckles; small pigmented areas of skin which become more evident on exposure to sunglight.
Lentigoalso known as liver spots; dark patches of pigmentation which appear more distinct than freckles and have a slightly raise appearance and more scatted distribution
Moles (Papilloma)a common occurence on the face and body and present in several different form, varying in size, colour and vascular appearance.
Naevaea birthmark, that is a clearly defined malformation of the skin that is present at birth. A naevae is a birthmark, that is a clearly defined malformation of the skin that is present at birth.
Port wine stainis a permanent purplish discolouration that may occur anywhere on the body but is usually located on the upper half of the body.
Blistersan elevation of the skin filled with serous fluid
Cystis a closed sac having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. I may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material.
Keloid scars- a type of scar which results in an overgrowth of tissue at the site of a healed skin injury.
Striaearea also known as stretch marks
verrucae filliformis- are soft, small, flesh-coloured skin flaps on the neck, armpits, or groin which are often known as skin tags.
dermatitisan allergic inflammation of the skin characterised by erythema - redness of the skin, itching and various skin lesions. may causes by plants, drugs, clothing, cosmetics, and chemicals. NOT contagious
Millacommonly present as tiny white bumps or whiteheads. these form when sebum become trapped in a blind duct with no surface opening. mostly common on dry skin and milia appear on the obicularis oculi muscle area and between the eyebrows. it can form after injury, sunburn on the face or shoulders, and are sometimes widespread.
basal cell carcinomaoccurs on exposed parts of the skin, especially face, nose, eyelid, cheek.
squamous cell carcinomafound on the surface of the body, on the top layer of the skin. caused by sunlight, chemicals or physical irritants.
Malignant melanomatumour of melanocytes. usually develops in a previously benign mole. The mole has become larger and darker, ulcerated and the tumour eventually spreads.