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Disease and disorder of cardiovascular system

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lilypoh's version from 2016-04-16 15:02

Disease and disorder of cardiovascular system

Disease and disorder of cardiovascular system

 

Question Answer
Varicose VeinsDeoxygenated blood in the lower body has to move uphill in order to return to the heart. Valves prevent the blood flowing backwards but sometimes these valves, especially those in the superficial veins of the legs, no longer work effectively. Consequently the veins become dilated and blood collects in the veins instead of returning to the heart. The veins become distended and knobbly, showing through the skin. Varicose veins are often caused by: heredity excessive periods of sitting and standing pregnancy obesity.
Anaemiais a reduction in the blood's ability to carry oxygen, caused either by a decrease in red blood cells, or the haemoglobin they carry, or both. It may be caused by extensive loss of blood, lack of iron in the diet, the failure of bone marrow to produce the normal level of cells or it may be inherited.
Leukaemia is a cancer of the blood, caused by over-production of white blood cells.
SepticaemiaAlso known as blood poisoning, this is a generalised disease associated with the circulation and multiplication of toxic bacteria in the blood.
HaemophiliaThe blood's inability to clot. This is an inherited disease which affects mainly men but which can be carried by women.
ArteriosclerosisA degenerative disease of the arteries, in which the walls of the vessels harden and lose elasticity. The loss of elasticity causes an increase in blood pressure. This condition mainly affects the elderly.
Atherosclerosis/AtheromaA build-up of fats, including cholesterol, inside the arteries which causes a narrowing of the artery passage, hardening of the vessel walls and a loss of elasticity.
Blue BabyA baby born with a congenital heart abnormality.
HaemorrhoidsAlso known as piles, these are enlarged veins in the rectum or anus which may collapse or contain blood clots.
PhlebitisInflammation of a vein. Thrombo-phlebitis is the inflammation of a vein where a blood clot has formed.
ThrombusA blood clot in the heart or in the blood vessels.
Hiv/AidsAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a complex disease that follows infection with the Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV). The virus attacks T-lymphocytes, making the immune system incapable of fighting disease. It is transmitted through blood and other body fluids.
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