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Discourse Analysis - Text, Discourse, Context, Co-text and Pretext

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ness37's version from 2018-05-01 13:51

Section

Question Answer
Widdowson's definition of textThe language that people produce and it provides objective data for linguistic analysis
Widdowson's definition of discourseThe way texts are produced by people based on context
TextLack any strength of meaning unless given context = dependant on context, point away from themselves
DiscourseThe interpretation of the text based on its context. Illocutionary force and perlocutionary effect = function of the discourse (intentionally written into text or interpretively read into through discourse)
Written text as discourseStill dependant on reader's interpretation - what a writer means by a text is not the same as what it means to the reader (Widdowson)
Spoken text as discourseCasual conversation cannot be predicted (not scripted), have an idea of what topics could be talked about. Widdowson argues that when text is recorded it no longer represents the actual experience of the participants = 2nd hand derived version. Written transcripts of spoken conversations appear fragmented and discontinuous = coherence and coherence (don't need one to have the other)
Illocutionary forceSpeaker's intention in producing utterance
ConversationRoughly prescribed social ritual, fugitive record of discourse
Co-textRefers to textual units which are integral to the larger text. Interpretation (discourse) may depend on co-text = literal interpretation or figurative interpretation.
Corpus linguisticsRecord words that co-occur together most frequently - collocations (co-occurence e.g. perform and operate) demonstrates that language behaviour is more formulaic than previously assumed
Cohesive devicesHalliday and Hasan - anaphoric and cataphoric reference, conjunction, ellipsis, synonyms, substitution
ContextSchematic knowledge enables us to narrow down meanings. In conversation, our assumptions are culturally shared = defines us as members of a community
PretextOwn filter that you impose on a text (an ulterior motive). Example of husband (unaware) and wife (experimenter) watching tv - wife focusing on literal meaning, husband trying to get sympathy = both have a pretext
WiddowsonArgues that because pretext is guided by own filter, CDA cannot be a reliable/objective method of collecting data = subjective interpretation by researcher
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