Discourse Analysis - Approaches to the Analysis of Discourse

ness37's version from 2018-05-02 10:00


Question Answer
Ethnography of SpeakingEnquires into culture-specific norms of communication. Example of Kava drinking in Vanuatu - demonstrated the complexities of a communicative event in an unfamiliar culture including rules of participation and participant roles (not too dissimilar from institutional talk)
HymesIdentified a number of components that are useful when attempting to describe interactions in an unfamiliar language - genre, topic, purpose, setting, key participants, message form/content, act sequence etc
Discourse analysisAllows us to identify the norms governing talk in varying contexts of language use
Interactional SociolinguisticsGumpterz developed it on the basis of ethnography of speaking framework. Focuses on the clues people use to interpret conversational interactions (contextualisation cues) Example of waiter who was unhappy with customers - persisted with point, repeated point, sighed a lot etc
Contextualisation cuesThe clues that people use to interpret conversational interactions (how mutual understanding is achieved in social interaction)
MiscommunicationWhen people from different language backgrounds interact there may be clashes between each person's discourse norms (intercultural pragmatics). Individual speakers bring their own set of expectations to an interaction based on previous experience and cultural norms - example of job interview (man didn't sell himself for the job but explained why the job was right for him)
Conversational Analysis of Institutional talkHas been rooted in Sociology. CA researches argue that talk is co-constructed.
Imbalance of powerWhen ordinary (lay) people interacting with a professional from an institution can result in this due to the knowledge of one person over the knowledge of the other person. e.g. medical contexts. Each person is assigned a social role, and sometimes there can be a blurred boundary between ordinary talk and institutional talk e.g. chat before agenda is talked through - dr appt
Clinical application of CASLT and client vs client and mother = CA analysis demonstrated that the child was receiving different instructions from the two adults (need to decide on one approach to be consistent).
Drew and HeritageDimensions of distinctiveness of institutional talk - turn taking (sometimes limitations on when someone can initiate talk e.g. teacher-student) structural organisation (phases of activity in e.g. 999 calls) sequence organisation (a teachers - question-answer-follow up)
Critical Discourse AnalysisAttempts to reveal how language is used to exercise socio-political inequality by making hidden assumptions visible (political discourse e.g. newspaper articles about immigrants). Argue that attention needs to be paid to what is not explicitly said e.g indirect hints or presupposed ideas.
Van DijkDimensions of analysis - access, setting, participant, roles and positions, genre, speech acts and topics
Critique of CDAToo interpretative - imposing meaning onto data (subjective analysis) - authors of texts have a pretext which might not match up with readers discourse (interpretations)
WiddowsonCDA will not uncover the hidden meanings but simply assign different ones through the interpretation of the text

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