Disability Throughout the Life Cycle Exam One Part One

achapss's version from 2017-02-08 15:38


Question Answer
Nature Vs Nurturebiology and the environment shaping the person or one or the other
Continuity Vs Discontinuitycontinuity - innate and gradual cumulative change
Discontinuity - discreet changes
Stability Vs Changeconsistency and impact

are we an earlier rendition of ourselves or do we change with experience and to what extent do earlier experiences impact development

enduring early experiences and the ability to overcome them
Life span oldest documented age "potential" to live to
Life Expectancy average number of years expected to live
psychosexual development Freud development of stages around the libido, importance to early life experiences, unconscious aspect of the mind
What are the stages of psychosexual development?Oral, anal, phallic, genital, latent
Egodeveloped to be the reason center for the Id, reality principle
Idpleasure principle, primitive instinctive part of personality we are born with, innate
Superego morality principle
Eriksonpsychosocial stages of development based on a desire to interact with others, each stage holds a crisis that must be adjusted to, the way you perform in the crisis leads to healthy development and better potential
Trust Vs Mistrust Birth to one, tests of trust during infancy and the groundwork for all later elements
Autonomy Vs Shameall of infancy 1-3, after trusting caregiver developing independent action, skill, and confidence
Initiative vs Guiltpreschool age, widening social world and developing responsibility for actions
Industry vs Inferiority elementary school, developing knowledge and intellect sometimes feeling inferior to others
Identity vs Identity Confusion adolescent, establishing a positive life path and not losing self in new relationships
Intimacy vs Isolationearly adulthood, forming relationships or isolation of self
Generativity vs Stagnationmid adulthood, helping to develop the younger generation or feeling as if you have not contributed to society
Integrity vs Despairlate adulthood, reflection on the past leading to either integrity or doom and regret
Piagetcognitive theory of assimilation and accommodation the brain physically matures in stages to understand the world and organize experiences
Sensorimotorfirst stage of Piaget, from birth to two, object permanence and actions and reactions, primarily sensory information
Pre - Operationalsecond stage of Piaget, from two to seven, connection of words and ideas symbolic meaning
Concrete Operationalthird stage of Piaget, from 7-11, logical reasoning and performance, conservation of matter etc.
Formal Operationalfourth stage of Piaget, from 12 on, abstract and Ideal thinking
Zygostkysociocultural perspective of development based on social and cultural interactions, the less skilled learn from the more skilled
Scaffoldingtemporary frameworks for support and meaning until development of individual success occurs, Zygotsky sociocultural
Zone of Proximal Developmentthe difference between what a learner can do without help and what they need help with in Zygostky's sociocultural development
examples of scaffoldingfeedback, hints, modeling, questioning
Pavlovbehavioral development classical conditioning associative learning
Skinnerbehavior development operant conditioning based on reinforcement
Behavioral developmentshaping, modeling, desensitization
Banduracognitive development behaviors based on experiences and ability to replicate them for a desired response
Ethological Theorybowlbly attachment and lorenz duck imprinting, behavior is tied to biology and shaped by evolution
Bronfenbrennerecological theory developed on five different environmental systems that form the individual
What are bronfenbrenner's five systems in order out from the individual?Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
Microsystemthe setting in which the individual interacts with directly and the most often, includes health care, family, peers and does not need to be physical can be through technology
Mesosysteminteractions between the microsystems of the individual as friends and work relationships
Exosystemlinks of a social system where the individual does not play a role but is effected as family friends, mothers promotion at work leading to more travel
Macrosystemthe culture of the individual and belief and behavior patterns that interact with the exosystem ex: socioeconomic status, ethnicity
Chronosystempatterns of events and transitions that happen within the individuals life time as a presidency, 9/11
What are the two psychoanalytical/social theories and what concept of development do they follow?Erikson and Freud(stability vs change), discontinuous patterns that focus on nature and early experience
What is the cognitive theory and what concept of development does it follow?Piaget, conscious thought focuses on nature
What concept of development does Vygostky's theory follow?continuity with a focus on nurture
What concept of development does the ethological theory follow?biology focus and critical periods


Question Answer
Heredity Environment Interactionwe are born with genes that give us a specific blueprint for development trajectory but the environment intervenes
When can you take your premature baby home from the hospital?weigh four pounds, can maintain own temperature, breast and bottle feed, gain steady weight, can breathe on their own
Premature baby born before 37 weeks
Perinatal immediately before and after birth
Prenatalbefore birth and during pregnancy
Postnatalafter birth
postpartumafter child birth
What are the stages of prenatal development?Germinal Period, Embryonic Period, Fetal Period
Germinal Periodzero to two weeks, 1. fertilization of the zygote from the ovary through fallopian tube 2. creation of blastocyst 3. trophoblast formation 4. fixing to the uterine wall
Blastocystgroup of cells after fertilization during the germinal period
Trophoblastnutritious covering outer layer of cells in order to support the embryo that forms during the germinal period
Embryonic Period2-8/10 weeks, begins when the blastocyst attaches to the uterine wall and is now designated an embryo, support systems of the amnion, umbilical cord, and placenta develop, and organogenesis begins
Amniondeveloped during the embryonic period, bag of fluid for temperature control that holds baby
Umbilical Corddeveloped during the embryonic period, made of two arteries and a vein the baby to the placenta
Placentadeveloped during the embryonic period, disk shaped group of tissues that intertwine the mother and baby
Organogenesisduring the embryonic period the organs first begin to develop and are very vulnerable to environmental changes
What develops during week three of the embryonic period?neural tube and the brain (continues from 18-24 days to two years)
Anacephalyneural tube development issue leading to underdevelopment of the brain and skull and early death of the baby
Spina Bifidaneural tube development issue that the baby is able to live with, defect in spinal cord and brain development
What develops within 21 days of the embryonic period?eyes
What develops within 24 days of the embryonic period?heart cell differentiation
What develops within a month four weeks of the embryonic period?urogenital, arm and leg buds, heart chambers, blood vessels
What develops within five to eight weeks of the embryonic period?arms, legs, face, intestinal tract
What average size is the baby at the end of the embryonic period around 8 weeks?one ounce and one inch
Fetal Periodfrom conception/two months to post birth, development of functioning organ systems at around 7-9 months and viability
Viability (include time frame)ability to survive outside of the womb beginning at 6 months
Maternal Blood Screeningbased on Alpha Fetal Protein levels in mothers blood checked early on for hint of down syndrome with high levels
Ultrasound Sonographyin utero photographs performed throughout the pregnancy but done earlier to check limb length for down syndrome if AFP is high
Amniocentesisneedle into amniotic fluid to check chromosomal abnormality, sex, fetal condition
Choronic Villus Samplinga sample of the villi in the amniotic sac taken to test chromosomes and for other genetic disorders, complications lead to spontaneous abortion
Teratogensany agent that can negatively alter the structure, function, cognitive, behavioral outcome of a child, severity is dependent on dose, genetic susceptibility and critical periods
When is a child most susceptible to harm by teratogens?in the embryonic period around 2-8 weeks
Differential Resistancesome drugs are harmful and considered teratogens and others aren't
What prescription drugs are harmful teratogens?antibiotics, some antidepressants and hormones, accutane
What nonprescription drugs are harmful teratogens ?aspirin and diet pills
How is caffeine a teratogen?low levels give small risk of miscarriage and low birth weight, high levels lead to fetal death
How can the mothers blood type be a teratogen?if the RH factor and type do not match the mothers blood will create antibodies that will attack the baby
Anoxiastress of birth on a baby leading to insufficient oxygen, secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline
Apgar Scaleneonatal health and responsiveness taken 1 and 5 minutes after birth, 10 is the highest and a lower of 3 and below indicates a life threat
What does the apgar scale measure?respiratory effort and function, heart rate, muscle tone and activity, body color, reflex irritability
Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment ScaleNBAS, taken 24-36 hours after birth much more sensitive, assess neurological development, reflexes, reactions to people and objects indicating brain damage
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)comprehensive analysis of behavioral, neurological, and stress response, regulatory capacities, assess the "at risk infant"
What are the three leading CODs in infant mortality?Congenital malformation, Low birth weight and preterm birth, SIDS
Low Birth Weightinfants less than 5.5lb at birth
Preterminfants born 3 weeks or more before full term
Small for datebirth weight is below normal in terms of length of pregnancy
Why has the rate of preterm births risen?amount of births per mother, management of maternal and fetal conditions, substance abuse
Preeclampsiahypertension in mother spike in BP, if protein is found in the urine this indicates that the BP will continue to spike and in order to save baby they must induce labor
Baby Bluesemotional fluctuation after pregnancy resolved within 1-2 weeks without treatment, 70% prevalent
Post Partum Depressionexcessive sadness, anxiety, despair after birth due to hormonal change that can affect the critical bonding period, 10% prevalent
What is the major weight trend in the postpartum period?gain 5-6 ounces a week during the first month
What is the major height trend in the postpartum period?1 inch a month for the first year
Shaken baby syndromebrain swelling and hemorrhaging from child abuse trauma, hard to detect as brain technology and scans can not be used on a baby
What is the trend in brain development?the brain begins to develop in the embryonic period at 25% at birth and continues to 75% at age two
Shared Sleepingcultural method of mother sleeping with the child, can cause SIDS, can also increase breast feeding and allow mother to track childs breathing
Sudden Infant Death Syndromeincreased risk with sleep on back in the first 4-6 weeks, infant stops breathing and dies
How much food do infants need?50kcal for every pound of weight
Benefits of breast feedinglower GI and lower respiratory infection, decrease in obesity, diabetes, SIDS


Question Answer
Down Syndromechromosome linked prenatal abnormality, an extra chromosome leading to severe mental retardation
Treatment for Down Syndromesurgery on knees and heart chambers, infant stimulation, special learning, muscle tone therapy
Klinefelter Syndrome 1/600 chromosome linked prenatal abnormality, (XXY) an extra X chromosome in males leading to physical abnormalities, learning disability, and infertility
Treatment for Klinefelter Syndromehormone therapy
Fragile X Syndrome chromosome linked prenatal abnormality, in the X chromosome that causes mental retardation, learning disability, short attention span, more common in males
Treatment for Fragile X Syndromespecial education, speech and language therapy
Turner Syndrome chromosome linked prenatal abnormality (XO) a missing X chromosome in 1/2500 female births that can cause mental retardation and sexual underdevelopment
Treatment for Turner Syndromechildhood and puberty hormone therapy
XYY Syndrome chromosome linked prenatal abnormality, an extra Y chromosome leading to above average height in 1/1000 males
Cystic Fibrosisgene linked abnormality, glandular dysfunction that interferes with mucus production and breathing and digestion leading to short life span
Diabetesgene linked abnormality in which the body does not produce enough insulin and leads to abnormal sugar metabolism
Hemophiliagene linked abnormality in which blood clotting is delayed leading to both internal and external bleeding
Huntington's Diseasegene linked abnormality in which the CNS deteriorates and affects muscle coordination and mental ability usually appearing around 35 and up, death after ten years of symptoms
Phenylketonuriagene linked abnormality or metabolic disorder treated with a special diet, untreated will lead to mental retardation
Sickle Cell Anemiagene linked abnormality, blood disorder in which oxygen supply is limited causing joint pain, swelling, heart and kidney failure
Tay Sachsgene linked abnormality, deceleration of mental and physical development due to lipid accumulation usually found in jews, treated with a special diet usually dies within five years of age

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