Disability Exam Two Part One

achapss's version from 2017-03-19 20:59


Question Answer
Fatiguelack of motivation to perform in early childhood impacting development
Early Childhoodages 2-6 where the critical period begins to close and disability begins to become evident
What is Piaget's view on early childhood?it is a time of play and creativity in which children begin to understand the world and thinking is acting
Piaget's Early Childhood Ages 4-7begin to ask why questions and extreme point of curiosity (second substage of preoperational)
Piaget's Early Childhood Ages 2-4still limited by animism and egocentrism
Second substage of pre operational Piagetdevelopment of conservation but not able to work backwards, intuitive thought, intense curiosity
First substage of pre operational Piagetchildren use symbolic functioning to understand world, egocentrism and animism
Intuitive ThoughtPiaget's pre operational substage two in early childhood, able to understand and know something but do not have evidence or reasoning
Zone of Proximal DevelopmentVygotsky range of tasks a child can perform alone and with guidance
Lower Limitwhat the child can achieve alone in ZPD
Upper Limitwhat the child needs assistance to achieve in ZPD
Scaffoldingphysical, mental, verbal assistance taken away as a child learns and no longer needs support
What is Vygotsky's view on early childhood?language and thought develop independently and then merge in a way that the child uses language to communicate before they are able to focus on inward thought
What happens around 3-7 in vygostky's theory of early childhood?self talk and transition to internal speech occurs and we see childs actions without them first speaking out loud
Self Talkvygotsky theory of early childhood, private speech used by children to perform more difficult tasks more common in socially competent children in order to enhance performance and keep attention, it is a sign of the transition to the ability to perform inward thought
How does Piaget feel about self talk?he claims it is egocentric and reflects immaturity he does not believe it is a sign of positive development
What are the top four causes of American childhood death?motor vehicle accident, cancer, cardiovascular disease, influenza and pneumonia
How does development in children with downs syndrome differ?it is the same as other children but at a slower rate
What is the significance of peers in early childhood?peers are important for social interaction during childhood play constantly providing information and feedback as well as teaching each other
What did Piaget and Vygostsky think about play in comparison to Parten?they agreed that play was about advancing individual cognitive development and Parten developed his six types of play based on the idea that learning to play was learning to relate to others
Sensorimotor playearly infancy, also called functional play children explore and manipulate objects to build schemas
Practice Playinfancy, repetition of behavior for mastery when new skills are learned
Pretence or Symbolic Play9-30 months, using objects to represent other ideas or objects
Social Playany play including interaction with others
Playtime spent on leisure activities
What is mixed age play?an example of scaffolding where younger children are taught by their older peers and siblings whom know slightly more
Authoritative Parentingdemanding and controlling but also responsive, tends to be the most effective, transcends cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds
Authoritarian Parentingdemanding and controlling and rejective and irresponsive
Indulgent Parentingaccepting and responsive but not many rules and not controlling, cares
Neglectful Parentingrejective and unresponsive as well as lack of control, present but does not care
What is the most common COD in middle childhood?motor vehicle accident
Cancer in middle childhoodsecond leading COD in children 5-14, currently increasing, involves kidneys, WBC, brain, lymph, bones, muscle, nervous system
Overweight in middle childhood definitionBMI in Kg/m2 greater than or equal to the 95th weight percentile
Overweight in middle childhood risks70% chance overweight adult, heart disease, high cholesterol, cancer, social issues, type 2 diabetes
Solidarity Playengrossed in independent play
Unoccupied Playinfrequent, child has no goal or intention and is just moving things around
Onlooker Playtakes particular interest and curiosity asking questions as others play but does not engage
Parallel Playchild mimics other children playing but does not engage
Associative Playchildren are more interested in each other than what they are playing with, strong social interaction
Cooperative Playchildren work together to usually accomplish some kind of goal with their play


Question Answer
What is the issue with early schooling?leads to a focus on negative feedback and what the child is doing wrong rather than emphasizing what they are doing right
Learning Disabilitydefined by an IQ higher than average and usually detected when a child learns to read and write
What is public law 94-142?education for all handicapped children act renamed to IDEA
What is the IDEA?Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, requires all students with disabilities to be given free appropriate education and spells out board mandated services for these children
What are the mandated services of the IDEA?evaluation, eligibility, determination, and appropriate education including LRE and IEPs
What is an IEP?Individual Education Plan Mandated by the IDEA, written statement that spells out a specific tailored education plan for students disability
What is an LRE?Least Restrictive Environment mandated by the IDEA, children must be educated in a setting as similar as possible for their specific needs as other children
What are the two types of LRE's?Mainstreaming where the child spends some time in the normal classroom and some time learning independently, inclusion where the child receives education amongst those in their normal classroom

Section 2

Question Answer
What are the important areas of development in elementary school?social and emotional and motor development
In middle childhood, what kind of emotional development do we see around elementary school?child begins to understand complex emotions, understand multiple emotions in a single situation, suppress and conceal emotions, redirect their feelings
Social cognitionbeginning to be aware of self and work on peer relations, opinions on social matters, scripts for making friends
What is Dodge's model for social development?believes that there are five experimental steps for social development if any are missed the child shows aggression and frustration among other things
What are Dodge's five steps?1. child watches others and encodes social cues, 2. child interprets those cues, 3. child acts and searches for response asking if this was the right action in a given situation, 4. child selects for an optimal response navigating success and failure from past experiences, 5. child enacts appropriate response

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