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Dimpleuworld 11

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sodapuso's version from 2016-08-02 05:19

Eye

NerveMuscleFunctionLesion Sx
CN IIISuperior rectus, Medial rectus, Inferior rectus, Inferior oblique, Levator palpebraeAdduction,Depression,Elevation & External rotationEye deviated downward & laterally, Ptosis, Dilation of pupil
CN IVSuperior ObliqueAbduction, Depression & Internal rotationEye deviated upward
CN VILateral RectusAbductionEye deviated medially
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Sensory

Question Answer
TibialPlantar foot
Common peronealDorsal foot & Anterolateral leg
Deep peronealBetween great toe & second toe
ObturatorMedial thigh
FemoralAnterior thigh & Medial leg
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Brain

Question Answer
Atriovenous malformationsIntracranial hemorrhage in children
Cerebral amyloid angiopathyMost common cause of Lobar/cortical(occipital,parietal) hemorrhage in the elderly
Charcout bouchardChronic hypertension with hemorrhagic stroke. Ct shows right away intraparnchymal hyperdensity(Basal ganglia, cerebellar nuclei, thalamus, pons
Cardiac arrest pt with decreased alertness with no focal neurologic deficits but instead watershed infarcts in perfusion zonesHypoxic encephalopathy
Progressive headache, nausea, vomiting, non localizing neurologic symptoms(confusion)Hypertensive encephalopathy
Abrupt onset of severe headache & associated with subarchnoid hemorrhageSaccular Aneurysm
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Question Answer
Iyr old boy (Less than 2yr old) presenting with cough and difficulty breathing, wheezing/crackles with scattered rales throughout, Low grade fever, tachypnea, peaking 3-5 daysViral Bronchiolitis -> RSV
Inspiratory stridor with seal like cough/ brassy or barking cough/ less common than RSVParainfluenza ->PaRaMyxovirus
G+ cocci that synthesize dextrans from sucroseS.mutans, S.Sanguinis -> Compilcation Subacute bacterial endocarditis in defective heart valves AFTER DENTAL PROCEDURE
Baby with macrosomia,hypoglycemia, jitterness & irritabilityBeta cell hyperplasia leading to increase insulin release
Fetal effects of gestational DMEmbryopathy NTD, Heart Defects / Placental vasculopathy - Asphyxia,Growth restriction, Polycythemia / Increased fetal Insulin - Macrosomia, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Hypoglycemia
A pt with a history with cholecystectomy a week ago, presents to clinic with nausea, fever, fatigue, anorexia, with abnormal liver grossHalothane Induced liver damage -> Fulminant Hepatits -> Elevated aminotransferase & Prolonged prothrombin time
Dual phospholipid bilayer membranes with foldings(Cristae)Mitochondria
Long folded membranes that are coated with ribsomes giving it a rough speckled appearanceRER
Found freely floating in the cytoplasm and bound to endoplasmic reticulumRibosomes -> found in the nucleolus
Turner syndromePaternal Meiotic Nondisjunction
Polycythemia(erythrocytosis)Men >52% or Women >48%
Increase in RBC MASSAbsolute Polycythemia
Normal RBC MASS OR Decrease in PLASMA VOLUMERelative erythrocytosis
Fatigue, Itching, hepatomegaly, Alkaline phosphatase elevated, Anti-Mitochondrial antibodies+Primary Biliary Cholangitis -> Patchy lymphocytic inflammation with destruction bile ducts and necrosis and micronodular regeneration of periportal tissues
Destruction of small and mid sized intraheptatic bile ducts with resulting cholestasisPrimary Biliary Cholangitis -> SAME HISTOPATHOLOGIC SEEN IN GVHD
Liver failure with centrilobular necrosis that can extend to entire lobuleAcetamenophen Overdose
Hepatocellular swelling and necrosis, mallory bodies, neutrophilic infiltration, fibrosisAlcoholic hepatits
Occlusion of hepatic veins leading to increased hepatic pressure, hepatomegally with reddish purple parenchyma, centrilobular congestion and necrosisBudd-Chiari Syndrome
Panlobular microvesicular steatosisReye Syndrome
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis TXAcyclovir -> Inhbit viral DNA Polymerase
Cardinal veins give rise toSuperior vena cava
Pulmonary truck arise fromtruncus arteriosus(neural crest migration -splitting into aorta & pulmonary)
Centriacinar EmphysemaSmoking pts with COPD affecting upper lung
Panacinar emphysemaA1 antitrypsin deiciency affecting lower lung
A pt who is having sudden nset chest pain, dyspnea, pain with deep breaths, thin tall pt in acute distressSpontaneous pneumothroax -> Apical Subpleural blebs
A pt who doubles her dose when having a bad day and skips dose when have a good day should beEducated about the risks of irregular dosing
A pt who doesnt take her medications because she forgets to take them should beGiven a proper written instructions on how to take the medication
Boy with bilateral breast enlargementgynecomastia-estradiol, tall, in special education classlearning difficulties, testicles small & firmhypogonadismKlinefelter syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome labsHIGH LH & FSH / LOW Testosterone
Galactokinase DeficiencyGalactose -> Galactose 1-P / Mild & NO liver or renal involvements, galatose in urine & blood, cataracts, "failure to track objects OR lack of smile"
Classic GalactosemiaGalactose1-p -> Glucose 1-p / Severe & Liver & renal involvements, cataracts, failure to thrive, jaundiceicterus/hepatomegaly
Ubiquitination deficiency leads toParkinsons Alzheimers other neurodegenerative disorder
Hormone highest after ovulationProgesterone
PancarditisInflammation of all 3 layers of heart. Complication of acute rheumatic fever
Knee pain and then a week later elbow painmigratory arthritis, with new holosystolic murmurmitral regurgitation, + Anti-streptolysin O titers leading to acute decompensation due to(Pancarditis) -> Acute rheumatic fever due to S.Pyogenes
Receptor(killing of cancer cells by t-cells recognizing tumor antigen) blocked for melanomaanti-PD1 OR anti-CTLA4
PKU amino acidPhenylanine
Propionic acidemia amino acidValine,Isoleucine, Threonine, Methionine, Cholestrol & odd chain fatty acids ->NEED B7 as cofactor
Leukemic cells or reapidly dividing cells amino acidAsparginine
Type 1 HypersensitivityHistidne
KetogenicLysine
Lesser curvature of stomach and adjustable gastric bandLesser Omentum
Greater curvature of stomach hasGreater Omentum
Falciform ligamentAttaches liver to anterior body will
Post meal InsulinLAG -> 0-4HRS
DKA insulingRegular -> 0-6
Cranial Nerve 3 PalsyDown & Out/ Light shine on one eye doesn't constrict the other / Ptosis Drooping of the affected eyelid
Corneal reflex absent seen inCN V1 & CN VII
Inability to close eyeCN VII
Inward deviation of eyeCN VI
CalcivirusesNorwalk -> Viral Gastroenteritis
Pt who presents with fatigue, malaise, weakness with a hx of Diabetes I & Hypothyroidism with high MCV and low hemoglobin & HematocritVit B12 deficiency
Autoimmune gastritis B12 MOADecrease Parietal cell Mass -> Due to Increase Gastrin & Decrease Gastric acid(achlorhydria- increase pH) -> Vitamin B12 deficiency
Pernicious anemia B12 MOADecrease Parietal cell mass -> Increase Gastrin and Increase PH -> Decrease Intrinsic factor
41 YR old with down syndrome who presents with alzhemiers has what increased?Neuronal Amyloid precursor protein -> Early Onset disease -> Neurofibrillary tangles"TAU" & extracellular amyloid-beta plaques
Familial or Late onset Alzheimers Disease has what increased?Serum apolipoprotein E
10 yr old who recently migrated to USA presenting with ataxia, myoclonus, visual problems, acting strangely and having difficulty at school, RNA VIRUS contain hemmaglutinSubacute Sclerosing Panencephaltis(Within years) -> Measles -> paraMyxovirus -> CSF shows oligonal bands
Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseaseRapid dementia caused by prions or misfolded proteins, older pts usually or younger pts who ate infected meat, spongiform transformation of the cerebral cortex
Progressive Multifocal leukoencephalopathyInfectious demyelinating disorder by JC VirusDD-DNA of polyomavirus in immunocompromised pts
Progressive Supranuclear palsyParkinson related neurodegeneration of frontal cortex & midbrain -> Rapidly progressing gait, falls, executive function loss, vertical gaze palsy with TAU proteins
68 yr old with urgency,, frequency, weak urinary stream, straining on micturition pts kidney is most like to showBOO -> Bladder outflow obstruction -> Due to BPH -> Kidney shows parenchymal pressure atrophy
Light Microscopy of heart 12 days laterGranulation and neovascularization
White/yellowplaques on colonic mucosa, and biopsy shows that the plaques composed of fibrin & inflammatory cellsClostridium Difficile Collitis -> He required hospitalization & antibiotics for pneumonia
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