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DILIGENCE Chemistry

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sashimi's version from 2016-05-08 16:55

Kinetic Particle Theory

Matter and its three states: Solid, Liquid, Gas.
Question Answer
Definition of diffusionThe spreading and mixing of particles in liquids and gases. ( FOR CHEMISTRY NOT BIOLOGY, which is From a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentraion, down a concentration gradient, and not requiring energy. )
Two factors that affect diffusionTemperature and Molecular mass of particles
Relationship between diffusion and temperatureThe higher the temperature, the faster rate of diffusion of particles; the lower the temperature, the slower the rate of diffusion of particles.
Relationship between diffusion and mass of particlesThe greater the mass of particles, the slower the rate of diffusion of particles; the smaller the mass of particles, the faster the rate of diffusion of particles.
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Particulate models off matter: Arrangements of particles in solid, liquid and gas.
Question Answer
Arrangement and movement of particles in solid?-VERY CLOSE TOGETHER in a regular arrangement
-Cannot be compressed
-Have little empty spaces between them
-Vibrate about their fixed positions (CANNOT MOVE FREELY)
Arrangement and movement of particles in a liquid?-CLOSELY PACKED TOGETHER in an irregular arrangement
-Cannot be compressed
-Have little empty spaces between particles (more than solids)
-Can move freely throughout the liquid
Arrangement and movement of particles in a gas?-Spaced very far apart in an irregular arrangement
-Can be easily compressed
-Free to move anywhere
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Question Answer
Properties of matter-May be coloured
-Can feel hot or cold
-Expands when heated because the distance between particles increases
Properties of Particles-Not coloured
-Do not get hot or cold
-Does not expand
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Explaining the changes in state with KPT: (*NOTE Please remember the graphs on energy change in textbook pg 40)
When answering questions about state change, describe the change of arrangement and movement of the before and after states of the matter, the temperature and whether it absorbs or loses heat energy.
Question Answer
MeltingTHE CHANGE FROM A SOLID TO A LIQUID. The particles in the solid absorbs energy, causing the particles to vibrate faster about their fixed positions, overcoming the forces of attraction between them. The particles are then no longer in their fixed positions. They are packed close together and are free to move randomly. The substance is now a liquid.
FreezingTHE CHANGE FROM A LIQUID TO A SOLID. The particles in the liquid loses energy, beginning to move slowly as the temperature decreases.The particles are overcome by the forces of attraction and no longer move freely. They settle into fixed and orderly positions. The substance is now a solid.
BoilingTHE CHANGE FROM A LIQUID TO A GAS. The particles in the liquid absorbs energy, moving faster as the temperature increases. The particles absorbed enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction holding them together, spreading further apart and move freely. The substance is now a gas.
CondensationTHE CHANGE FROM A GAS TO A LIQUID. The particles in the gas loses energy, starts to move slowly as the temperature decreases. The particles are overcome by the forces of attraction and no longer far apart, arranged randomly. They are packed close together and move freely throughout the substance The substance is now a liquid
SublimationTHE CHANGE FROM A SOLID TO GAS WITHOUT MELTING. The particles in the solid gains energy, vibrates faster about their fixed positions, and overcome the forces of attraction between them. The particles are no longer in their fixed positions nor packed closely together in an orderly arrangement. They are far apart and in a random arrangement and free to move randomly in all directions. The substance is now a gas.
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Elements, Compounds and Mixtures.

Question Answer
Definition of elementsAn element is a substance that cannot be broken down in to simpler substances by chemical methods.
Definition of compoundsA compound is a substance containing two or more elements chemically combined together.
Definition of atomsAn atom is the smallest unit of an element, having the properties of that element.
Definition of moleculesAn molecule is a group of two or more atoms chemically combined together.
Definition of ionsAn atom or a group of atoms that has an electrical charge.
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