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Digestive System

zunair's version from 2018-05-27 16:04

Section 1

Question Answer
SubstrateMolecule or surface enzyme acts on
VIsceral Peritoneumcovers the external surfaces of most digestive organs
Parietal peritoneumlines the body wall for cover
MesentryDouble layer of peritoneum, a sheet of two serous membranes fused back to back.
What does the Mesentry do? Provide routes for blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves to reach the digestive viscera; hold organs in place and store fat.
TunicsWalls of the alimentary canal
Types of TunicsMucosa, Submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa (Adventitia)
GallbladderConcentrates and stores liver secretions
Mucosa functions1) Secrete mucus, digestive enzymes and hormones 2) Absorb end products of digestion into blood and 3) Protect against infectious disease
Polar Nutrients way of absorptionPolar substances are absorbed using active or passive carrier-mediated transport mechanisms
Non polar nutrientsnon polar products can be absorbed by simple diffusion through the phospholipid bilayer of the intestinal epithelial cells

Section 2

Question Answer
Mucosa is part of what layerInner most layer
3 sublayers of mucosa are whatLining epithelium, Lamina propria and Muscularis mucosae
Lining EpitheliumIn contact with lumen contents
Lamina Propria areolar connective tissue, Contains small blood vessels and nerves, when substances move into these vessels, absorption occurs
muscularis mucosaedeep to lamina propria, contractions
submucosaeAreolar connective tissue with rich supply of blood and lymphatic vessels and nerve fibers.
MALTPrevents ingested microbes from crossing GI Tract wall
What does Enteric mean"Gut"
Why is the liver important for proteinsbecause of deamination, amino acids convert to ammonia (toxic) and the liver converts ammonia to urea (not toxic)

Section 3

Question Answer
Salivary amylaseCarbohydrate digesting enzyme produced in the salivary glands
PepsinogenZymogen form of protease
Parietal CellsCells that produce acid in the stomach and intrinsic factor
Pyloric SphincterValve through chyme passes from stomach to duodenum
GastrinHormone produced in stomach that induces stomach secretions
Cholecystokinin (CCK)Hormone inducing bile and pancreatic juice secretions
JejunumSecond section of small intestine that most of absorption occurs
Hepatic Portal VeinBlood vessel that carries nutrients directly from small intestine to liver
WaterSubstance mainly absorbed from waste in large intestine
RectumRegion of large intestine which feces is stored before elimination
ProteaseEnzyme mainly helping in digesting proteins
Ghrelininduces hunger
LeptinSensation of satiety
GlucagonBreakdown of glycogen and then the glucose goes to blood, increasing blood glucose levels
InsulinInduces cellular uptake (cells absorbing) glucose from blood to decrease blood glucose levels
SecretinMain role is to release bicarbonate ions and by doing so, neutralize the acidic chyme in the duodenum
Chief CellsSecrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase
Gastric Lipase breaks down whatFats
Intrinsic Factorhelps absorption of vitamin b12 in ileum and necessary for production of erythrocytes
G Cellssecrete Gastrin

Section 4

Question Answer
What enzymes (or hormones) are in the mouthSalivary amylase, salivary lipase
What enzymes (or hormones) are in the stomachGastric lipase, Pepsin(ogen), HCI, Gastrin and Ghrelin
What enzymes (or hormones) are in the liverBile
What enzymes (or hormones) are in the pancreasPancreatic juice (bicarbonate, lipase, trypsin[ogen], proteases and anylase), cholecystokinin, somatostatin, secretin, motilin
What enzymes (or hormones) are in the large intestineNone

Section 5

Question Answer
Cholecystokinin (CCK)Site of production is Duodenum, Stimulation for production is fatty chyme (also partially digested proteins), target organ is liver/pancreas, activity is potentiates secretins actions on these organs, increase enzyme rich pancreatic juice, get more bile, relax sphincter to get bile and pancreatic juice,
Gastrinsite of production is Stomach mucosa (G Cells), stimulus for production is food in stomach, acetylcholine released by nerve fibers, target organ is stomach (pariental cells) small intestine ileocecal valve large intestine, activity is increase HCI secretion, stimulate mass movement, stimulate contraction of intestinal muscle
Histaminesite of production stomach mucoasa, stimulus for production is food in stomach, target organ is stomach and activity is activate parietal cells to release HCI
MotilinSite of production is duodenum, stimulus is fasting, target organ is proximal duodenum, activity is stimulate gastric glands and motility

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