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Digestive system part 2

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hasanahatesscience's version from 2017-06-26 03:11

Mouth

Question Answer
a)mechanical digestion (chewing with teeth tongue and cheeks)increases surface area of food to maximize contact with enzymes
b)food is moistened with salvia. salvia has enzymesi)salvary amylase-starch->maltose. ii)lysozyme-attacks bacteria. mixture of food+salvia=Bolus
PharynxBolus goes into esophagus by epiglottus
memorize

Esophagus

Question Answer
this muscular tube is made of 2 muscle layerscirculatory muscles and longitudunal muscles
the movement of food down the esophagus is wave-like, called PERISTALIS
memorize

Stomach

Question Answer
made of 3 muscle layers + inner lining. Gastric glands in the lining makeGastric Juice. this is made of HCL (aq) + 3 Proteases (pepsin, rennin, and mucin.)
Pepsinproteins
renninmilk protein
mucinmucus
top of stomach valve CARDIAC SPHINCTER
if sphincter leaksthis causes heart burn
if sphincter leaks a lotyou develop GIRD (gastro esphageal reflex disorder) can lead to esophogal cancer
mechanical digestion occurs in the stomach.mixes gastric juice+bolus= CHYME
why doesnt the stomach digest itself?there is a thick layer of mucus. lining cells replace every 36 hrs.
stomach problems =Peptic Ulcer
Peptic ulcers occur due to1)bacterial infection, treated with antibiotics. 2)eating painkillers/asprin/ibuprofen. 3)excess acid production
memorize

Small intestine-DUODENUM

Question Answer
small intestine6m long 2.5cm in diameter with 3 subunits.
duodenum (30 cm long)digestion is completed. enzymes are secreted by lining cells.
Amylases stach to glucose
protesesproteins + dipeptides into amino acids
Lipasesfats/triglycerides into glycerol
NucleaxDNA+RNA into nitrogeneaus bases. Ribose phosphate
memorize

DUODENUM CONT

Question Answer
the Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice into thepancreatic juice into the duodenum.
pancreatic juice is made ofbaking soda which neautralizes stomach acid. enzymes such as amylase, protease, lipases and nucleases.
the gullbladder releases BILE a greenish soapy liquid, breaks down fats into small parts into the duodenum.
problems with the gull bladdergull stones (treat it with meds to dissolve stones or surgery)
problems with duodenimduodenal ulcer due to too much stomach acid. treat it with meds to decrease acid production
memorize

JEJUNUM

Question Answer
where all the nutrients are absorbed,contains villi and microvilli
absorptionmoves good stuff out of jenunum into blood then to liver
sugarsare moved by facillatated diffusion, transported by plasma to liver
amino acidsmoved by active transport, goes to plasma then liver.
fatty acidsdiffuses into lacteal + transported by lymph fluid to liver.
memorize

ILLEUM

Question Answer
absorbs vitamin B12 and bilewhich returns to liver
gastric bypass surgeryinvolves making stomach smaller. in some cases, duodenum is taken out. 1)cures diabetes 2defiency diseases
memorize

LARGE INTESTINE

Question Answer
ascending colonfibres go through fermentation process
vitamin k is absorbed and made
transverse colonwater is reabsorbed.
memorize

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