Digestive system part 1

hasanahatesscience's version from 2017-06-26 00:41


Question Answer
what is a nutrientsomething important obtained from food
macro nutrientneeded in large amounts (carbohydrates, proteins fats and water)
micro nutrientsmall amounts only (vitamins and minerals)


Question Answer
A)CARBOHYDRATESmade of carbon and water
general formula for carbohydratec1, h12, o1. catergorized by size.
simple sugars split intomonosaccharides and disaccharides

macronutrients carbs

Question Answer
1.monosaccharidesglucose (blood->aldehyde) fructose (fruit->ketone) galactose (milk-> aldehyde) ribose (dna+rna>aldehyde) and xylose (xylem->aldehyde)
they have thesame carbon chain w/o double bonds
they have different type andlocation of functional groups
what is a functional group?atoms that attach to a carbon chain and changes the reaction. makes molecules polar, increases solubility and stickiness

macronutrients carbs

Question Answer
2.disacharides2 monosaccharides bonded together thru DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS (makes something by removing water)
alpha bonds point down sohumans can digest this. maltose = glucose+glucose. sucrose=glucose+fructose. lactose=galactose+glucose
3.oligosaccharides2-10 monosaccharides bonded together, makes glycalyx and identifys cells. has glycolipids

macronutrients carbs

Question Answer
polysaccharide100's-1000's of monosaccharides
starchmade by plants
amyloseunbranched ex:shortbread. heat and water turn it into glucose
amylopectinbranched, use in jam preperation, when you want to use less fruit

Section 6

Question Answer
glycogenanimal version of starch. highly branched and FOUND IN BIG SKELETAL MUSCLES AND LIVER
chitinfound in insect/crustaceans exoskelton. tongue of molluse, cell walls of fungi. INDIGESTABLE BY HUMANS
Celluloselinear not branched. 1000's og glucose units long
soluble fibresfound in beans fruit skins and algae (hummus chili and lentils)
insoluble fibresfound in bran celery strings, string beans, beans and cereal seed coat
how many grams of fiber do we need a day25 g

Section 7

Question Answer
benefits of soluble fibres 1.absorbs water forms a viscous gel. SHOWS GLUCOSE ABSORPTION. a close spike will damage organs stops absorption of LDL andCholestoral (makes plague0
3.makes stool bulky,patients constipation

Section 8

Question Answer
benefits of insoluble fibers1.regulates blood sugar and makes it easier to poop by speeding up waste movement in colon
fiber (in general)makes you feel full and balances intestinal ph preventing colon cancer

Section 9

Question Answer
B) PROTEINmade of chains of amino acids. 20 amino acids exist of which are essential (we need them to eat)
R groupthere are at least 20 amino acids. ex: glycine, phenylalene, carboxylic acid group
how amino acids are connected togetherdehydration synthesis: removes water to link amino acids together. hydrolysis: opposite process where h20 is added to break bond


Question Answer
T= transporttransport hemoglobin (moves O2 to CO2) cytochrome (protein in mitchondria which moves electrons)
E= enzymesspeeds up chemical reaction. a)catabolic meaning breaking large molecules into small. b)anabolic means going from large to small. NAME ENZYMES BY THEIR SUBTRATE (material enzyme works on). ex: amylose->(amylase) glucose. proteins >(protease) amino acids. lipid>(lipase) glycenol (fatty acids)
A=antibodiesthese proteins have y shapes and are made by WBC
C=contractionur muscle fibres (actin + myosin) contracts.
H=hormonechemical messengers made by glad, goes into blood stream and targets specific tissue. ex:adrenalin(fight or flight) human growht hormone, insulin (regulates blood sugar) oxytocin (stimulates contraction in uterine)
E=energyprotein is a source of energy from food
R=receptorsproteins on cell surface, recieves messages from rest of body
S=structural proteinsfibrous and stringy. 3 kinds=1)keratin (Hair nails beaks feathers) 2)collagen (cartilage) 3)elastin (tendons/ligaments)
S=storage proteinsin eggs
how to destroy protein functionheat it, split it and expose to ph extremes. loses shape and function


Question Answer
fats- provides the bodywith energy
helps absorbsame vitamins
cushions the bodyex:soles of feet and provides insulation
generate heat (brown fat)fat tissues w lots of mitochondria. ppl who live in cold areas
stiffens membranes in animals

lipids and fats

Question Answer
lipidsfats steriods and phospholipids
c=cushioning (soles of feet)
h= heat productions (brown fat)
v=vitamin absorption
e=energy source. 9cal/g vs 400cal/g proteins or carbs
s (stiffens)=membranes in animals (chloestoral)
s (signals)sex hormones
fats attach thrudehydration synthesis. there are triglycerides (fatty acids), diglyercides(glycerol) and monoglycerides
saturated fatsall single bonds between carbons
unsaturated fatsat least one double bond between carbons. chain is 4-20 carbons long
transfatsinexpensive oils that are modified. this changes shape to more liner, so it can act like saturated fat (solid at room temp like butter). banned because they clog tubes like arteries
sterolsfound in plants animals and fungi. ex: testorone and estrogen.
cholesterolmade by liver but found in food. uses-1)part of cell membrane 2)ingredient to make steriod hormones (testorerone/estrogen) bile acids and vitamin D
phospholipidsa component of the cell membrane. hydrophlic and hydrophobic ends.


Question Answer
WATERmakes up most of our blood, extracellular fluid and other body fluids. used to regulate temp (sweating) and lubricates joints and poop.
micronutrientsneeded in small amounts
micronutrients - A)mineralszn(hair), fe(blood), mg, ca(bones), na, k(nerves), p(dna)
micronutrients-B)vitaminsi)water soluble. vitamin B defiency-mitochondria malfunctions. treat this with red meat and whole grain. vitamin c deficiency-scurvy. treat:limes
micronutrients-B)vitamins water insolublefat soluble. can be storaged in body. A-night vision. D-bones. E-healing K-clotting

food processing

Question Answer
food processingingestion->digestion->absorbtion(nutrients into blood stream)->egestion (eliminates wastes by pooping)
what did spallanzani dotied a a string to a sponge and swallowed it. he pulled it out and the juices digested meat
different digestive structure: BAG TYPE spongehollow structure. has hairs that create water current. water has plankton which sponge cells phagocytose. these are placed in food vacuoles and digested. lysosomes deliver digestive enzymes and intracellular digestion occurs
more complicated digestive structure: HYDRAhas Gastrovascular cavity which digestion of prey occurs. extracellular digestion. tentacles have harpoon like hair structures which trap prey
best digestive system: ALIMENTARY CANAL (starts in worms)mouth, stomach, esophagus, small/large intestine. ONLY IN BIRDS AND REPTILES crop is for food storage and gizzard is for grinding using stones.
in mammals, alimentary canal is called the GI tract. it is 9m long and herbivores have longer tracts than carnivores.

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