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Developmental Milestones

daju89's version from 2018-05-03 12:28

Section 1

Question Answer
Smiling6 weeks
Laughing, enjoys friendly handling3 months
Not shy6 months
Shy, takes everything to mouth9 months
May put hand on bottle when being fed6 months
Drinks from cup, uses spoon (clumsily)12-15 months
Competent with spoon and doesn't spill with cup2 years
Uses spoon and fork3 years
Uses knife and fork5 years
Helps getting dressed/undressed12-15 months
Takes off shoes and hat but unable to replace18 months
Puts on hats and shoes2 years
Can dress independently except for laces and buttons4 years
Plays peek-a-boo9 months
Waves bye bye, plays pat-a-cake12 months
Plays happily alone18 months
Plays near others but not with others2 years
Plays with others4 years
Lifts their head4-12 weeks
Pulls self to sit6 months
Sits without support7-8 months
Pulls to standing and crawls9 months
Cruises, walks with one hand held12 months
Walks unsupported13-15 months
Squats to pick up a toy18 months
Runs, climbs stairs with a rail2 years
Rides a tricycle with pedals, stairs without rail3 years
Hops on one leg4 years
Follows face and light to midlinenewborn
reaches, fixes and follows to 180 degrees3 months
Palmar grasp. Transfers from hand to hand6 months
points with finger. early pincer grip9 months
good pincer grip 12 months
tower of 3 18 months
scribbles18 months
tower of 6 2 years
turns pages one at time2 years
draws straight line2 years
tower of 93 years
draws circle3 years
draws cross4 years
draws triangles, squares 5 years
quietens to parents voice, turns toward sound3 months
Double syllables "adeh" "erleh"6 months
says 'mama' and 'dada'9 months
understands 'no'9 months
knows and responds to own name12 months
knows 2-6 words12-15 months
understands simple commands12-15 months
Combines two words2 years
Points to parts of the body2 years
Vocabulary of 200 words2 1/2 years
Talks in short sentences (3-5 words)3 years
Asks 'what' and 'who' questions3 years
Identifies colours3 years
Counts to 103 years
Asks 'why,' 'when' and 'how' questions4 years

Section 2

Question Answer
Classified using the Schatzker systemTibial plateau fracture
Varus injury affects medial plateau and if valgus injury, lateral plateau depressed fracture occursTibial plateau fracture
Mechanism: knee forced into valgus or varus, but the knee fractures before the ligaments ruptureTibial plateau fracture
Occur in the elderly (or following significant trauma in young)Tibial plateau fracture
The condition has a 20% recurrence rateDislocation of the patella
An osteochondral fracture is present in 5%Dislocation of the patella
Skyline x-ray views of patella are required, although displaced patella may be clinically obviousDislocation of the patella
Genu valgum, tibial torsion and high riding patella are risk factorsDislocation of the patella
Most commonly occurs as a traumatic primary event, either through direct trauma or through severe contraction of quadriceps with knee stretched in valgus and external rotationDislocation of the patella
Tenderness, quadriceps wastingChondromalacia patellae
Typical history of pain on going downstairs or at restChondromalacia patellae
Teenage girls, following an injury to knee e.g. Dislocation patellaChondromalacia patellae
Recurrent episodes of pain and effusions are common, often following minor traumaMenisceal tear
Joint locking (Patient may develop skills to 'unlock' the kneeMenisceal tear
Delayed knee swellingMenisceal tear
Rotational sporting injuriesMenisceal tear
Knee unstable when put into valgus positionRupture of medial collateral ligament
Mechanism: leg forced into valgus via force outside the legRupture of medial collateral ligament
Paradoxical anterior draw testRuptured posterior cruciate ligament
Tibia lies back on the femurRuptured posterior cruciate ligament
Mechanism: hyperextension injuriesRuptured posterior cruciate ligament
Management: intense physiotherapy or surgery Ruptured anterior cruciate ligament
Poor healing Ruptured anterior cruciate ligament
Typically presents with: loud crack, pain and RAPID joint swelling (haemoarthrosis) Ruptured anterior cruciate ligament
Mechanism: high twisting force applied to a bent knee Ruptured anterior cruciate ligament
Sport injury Ruptured anterior cruciate ligament