Development Across The Lifespan

ohsobeezee23's version from 2015-04-21 23:14

General Terms

Question Answer
What is Life likeIt is an obstacle coarse (according to Erik Erikson)
Adolescencetransition between childhood and adulthood (the struggle of the need to stand out and belong)
Emerging adulthoodbridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence
Fluid Intelligence the ability to solve problems independent of your own personal exp and education
Crystallized Intelligenceknowledge that's based on facts, solidified by past experiences and prior learning
Self-conceptan understanding and evaluation of who we are

Thinking and Development

Question Answer
According to Jean PiagetThe capacity for complex, abstract thought increases as a child has more experiences
AssimilationFitting new experiences into what you already know
AccommodationAltering your understanding of the world to make it consistent with new experiences

Stages of Development (Jean Piaget version)

Question Answer
Stage 1 pt.1Sensorimotor Stage (Birth - age 2)
Stage 1 pt.2baby is born with motor reflexes and their thoughts are tied with these actions also they are still in "out of sight, out of existence" mode
Stage 1 pt.3By about 6 months children begin to search for toys hidden from them child can now represent things mentally and symbolically
Stage 2 pt.1Preoperational Stage (2-7)
Stage 2 pt.2increase in ability to reason symbolicaly but cannot perform mental operations
Stage 2 pt.3Piaget also thought that children were egocentric at this stage and conservation of matter (amounts do not change just because their physical appearance)
Stage 3 pt. 1The Concrete operations Stage (7 - 12)
Stage 3 pt. 2Thought process are tied to concrete experiences, without capacity for abstraction of thought (develop understanding of conservation of matter and mental operations)
Stage 4The Formal Operations Stage (12 - Adulthood) - teens develop a capacity for abstract reasoning (can imagine how the world could be, future events, etc)


Erik Erikson's stages Age vs Issue

Question Answer
Indancy (1 year)trust vs mistrust
toddlerhood (1 to 3 years)autonomy vs shame and doubt
preschool (3 to 6 years)initiative vs guilt
elementary school (6 to puberty)competence vs inferiority
adolescence (teen years into 20's)identity vs role confusion
young adulthood (20's to early 40's)intimacy vs isolation
middle adulthood (40's to 60's)generativity vs stagnation
late adulthood (60's and up)integrity vs despair


Question Answer
What is the key to attachmentfamiliarity
Imprintingthe process of which animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Three Types of attachment in young childrenSecure , insecure ambivalent, insecure avoidance attachment
Secure attachmentWhen mother leaves they cry, when she comes back they are happy to see her
Insecure Ambivalent attachmentwhen leaves they cry, but are salty when she comes back
insecure avoidance attachmentcool with both mother and stranger not bothered by it at all

Moral Development

Question Answer
Preconventional morality (before age 9)concerned with self interest, starting to judge people individually, based on needs and point of view
Conventional Morality (early adolescence)put an emphasis on conformity
Postconventional morality (adolescence and beyond)when we begin to account for differing values and basic rights

Styles of Parenting

Question Answer
AuthoritarianRules with consequences and expects you to follow them because "they say so"
PermissiveCaves to child's demands and have little control of the child's behaviour

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