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Design History

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pepoloza's version from 2016-05-07 20:51

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El Lissitzky, Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge (1919)

Russia
lithographic Soviet propaganda poster

Russian Constructivism
Universal messages through abstraction

The intrusive red wedge symbolises the bolsheviks, who are penetrating and defeating their opponents, the White movement, during the Russian Civil War.
Alexander Rodchenko, Cover for Novyi Lef, no. 6 (1927)

Russia
Russian Constructivism.
Photo Collage, on a diagonal (Implied motion)
Gerrit Rietveld, Shroeder House (1924-5)

Dutch
De Stijl.
Privacy in open space (moving walls)
Standardization
geometric, resembling a Mondrain painting
Gerrit Rietveld, Red and Blue Chair (1918, painted 1923)

Dutch
De Stijl
Like a 3D Mondrain painting. Every piece of wood serves a purpose and references each other in form.
Vilmos Huszar, Lettering for De Stijl Magazine (1917-18)

Dutch
De Stijl
Breaking down imagery and text into standardized parts
Georg Muche and Bauhaus workshops, Haus am Horn Kitchen, Bauhaus Exhibition (1923)

German
Bauhaus
FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION
One continuous counter
Standardization! Geometry!
Freeing up Women's time.
Marcel Breuer, Breuer Chair (1928)

German
Bauhaus
TWO LEGS, minimal material and bare material. Has give to it. Manufactured by Thonet, could be broken down into parts.
Herbert Bayer, universal alphabet (1926)

German
Bauhaus
Letters made of logical geometry. Standardization.
Difficult to read, though.
Joost Schmidt, Bauhaus exhibition poster (1923)

German
Bauhaus
The grid on an angle! Geometry! Put in public places, advertising for the exhibition that but Bauhaus "on the map."
Jan Tschichold, Poster for Constructivist Exhibition (1937)

Germany
Bauhaus
Clear, simple lay out unitizing styles from De Stijl and constructivism.
Edward Johnston, Underground “Railway” type (1916)

British
Made for the London Underground.
English Modernism. Made to make the train system easier to understand and look more professional.
H.C. Beck, Underground Map (1933)

British
London Underground.
Modernism. Used abstraction to make the train map easier to understand-- set forth a system that is used for maps of this sort today.
J.E. Ruhlmann, Grand Salon, Hotel d’un Collectionneur (1925)

French
Moderne.
Softening of Modern, decorative.
Raoul Dufy, wallpaper design (1929)

French
Moderne.
Softening of Modern, decorative. But still touching on modern art and design,
A.M. Cassandre, Dubonnet poster (1934)

French
Art Deco
Branding!
Le Corbusier, Interior of Pavilion de l’Esprit Nouveau (1925)

French
Moderne/ Art Deco
Embraced standardized building materials.
Paris Exposition des Arts Décoratifs of 1925
Incorporated a tree.
Alvar Aalto, Paaimio Chair (1931)

Finnish
Modernism.
Bent wood, ergonomic design, form follows function, industrial materials easy to replicate because it originally was for a tuberculosis sanatarium
Paul Frankl, “Skyscraper” bookcase (1926)

USA
Moderne.
Furniture that celebrates industrial materials and advancements
Carl Breer, Airflow (1934)

USA
American Interwar Industrial Design
Aerodynamic, yo, Streamlining
Raymond Loewy, Coldspot Super Six (1935)

USA
American Industrial Design
Streamlining, the new kitchen, ease
Leonid, poster for Volksempfanger Radio (1936)

German
Nazi propaganda poster
"Germany Listens to the Fuhrer with the People's receiver"
Broadcast Hitlers voice as a way of unifying and often feeding people misinformation
Used traditional typeface, as more modern ones were associated with rebellion (constructivism, for example)
Ferdinand Porsche, Volkswagen (c. 1937)

German
Industrial Design
"people's car"
Nazi-supported, able to be used for war efforts
Provides working class with affordable stuff man
Remember people were told to give money to the government in return for cars but they never got them
Promoted unity and loyalty
Advisory Committee on Utility Furniture, Mahogany table chair (c. 1945)

Britian
Europe during WWI, civilian austerity= patriotism
Levittown Housing (c. 1949)

USA
After WWII
The "American Dream" populuxe
suburbia conformity the appeal of owning your own house
Harley Earl, Cadillac Eldorado Convertible (1953)

USA
populuxe
American Pop Culture/ luxury
artificial obsolescence through styling
Eero Saarinen, Tulip Chair (1956)

USA
American Postwar Design (WWII)
Less clutter by having one leg! Plastic finish for super industrial look.
Charles Eames, Lounge Chair (1956)

USA
Moderne. Luxury Populuxe, Post War WII design.
"The Throne" fine materials
Paul Rand, advertisement for Coronet Brandy (1947)

USA
American Postwar (WWII)
Branding! (character)
Corradino D’Ascanio for firm Piaggio, Vespa (1946)

Italy
Modern Italian design, after WWII. Efficient and inexpensive. Streamlined and made to look nonthreatening and easy to use. Personal freedom.
Muller & Oberheim, Kitchen Machine (1957)

German
Modernism after WWII.
Streamlining, efficiency in the kitchen. Importance of corporate identity (Braun)
Adrain Frutiger, Univers typeface (1950)

Swiss
Post WWII design. Variation in stroke width makes it easier to read with still the cleanness of sanserif. Many fonts with variation of width and weight (a system).
Josef Müller-Brockman, Poster for Less Noise (c. 1960)

Swiss
International Typographic style. tension through color, cropping and use of diagonals.
Tom Geismar, Mobil oil trademark (1964)

USA
Post war, brand identity, incorporation of modern design and international typography in main stream
Paul Rand, IBM annual report with photograph of IBM electric typewriter designed by Eliot Noyes (1958)

USA
Corporate identity, bauhaus ideals in main stream
Wes Wilson, Concert poster (1967)

USA
Psychedelic
A style associated with hippies and rock music. Rebellion against "rules" of design and legibility
Archizoom, Elettro Rosa model bed (1967)

USA, for MoMA
Theoretical Design
"new modes of living"
"Anti-design" freeing up designers
Honda Motor Company, Honda Civic (1975)

Japanese car that became very popular in US because of fuel efficiency
Ettore Sottsass, Jr., Tartar Table (1985)

Italy
Postmodern
Memphis-- industrial designers free of contacts able to made design without limits or rules
Not totally functional or marketable
Robert Venturi, Chippendale Chair (1978-84)

Italian
Postmodern
Mocking new design, utilizing kitsch decoration
Ron Arad, “Big Easy Volume 2” (1988)

Britain
Postmodern
Industrial steel
Neville Brody, record jacket for Cabaret Voltaire (1980)

Punk
Britain
referencing the cabaret voltaire in Zurich because they want ti be as hip as they were
Rebellion from international/ Swiss design
"The Will To Style" outlining the ideals of De Stijl

1922
Van Doesburg
"Eyes Which do not See Automobiles" The house is a machine for living in. Relates standardization in production to that in architecture There should be standards. Standards=Perfection, Bauhaus/Modern Architecture

1923
Le Corbusier
"What Consumer Engineering Really Is" American Advertiser, believed in artificial obsolescence and "good design" as a way of escaping the Depression

1932
Calkins
"Streamlining"

1934
Bel Geddes
"The MAYA Stage" Industrial Designer, understanding public acceptance, people like things to be new but not so new that it's scary. MAYA= most advanced by acceptable

1951
Raymond Loewy
"The Designer's Place in Industry" Industrial Designer, a good designer has artists, mechanical and marketing sense and isn't full of himself

1940
Van Doren
"Peaceful uses of Atomic Energy" Outlined a future with cheap and plentiful energy

1953
Eisenhower
"Organic Designs in Home Furnishings" Designer, creator of Selectric Typewriter, bring organic forms back

1941
Noyes
"What is Modern Design?" is is practicle, expressive, appropriate, express the materials (dont make them to be something they're not), simple, ultiziling technology

1950
Kaufmann
"The Kitchen Debate" Capitalism= good quality consumer products!
politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.


1959
Nixon and Khrushchev
"Program of the Hochschule fur Gestaltung" bauhaus school of design

1958
Ulm, Germany designed by Max Bill
"Unsafe at any Speed" exposed common design flaws in cars

1965
Nadar
"Design for the Real World" wrote about the downfalls of industrialization-- unnecessary, dangerous and environmentally destructive products. He challenged artificial obsolescence. Designers should work for social good!

1971
Papanek
"Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth" Conserve resources!

1969
Buckminster Fuller
"Address to the Nation About Policies to Deal With the Energy Shortages" 1970 energy crisis

1973
Nixon
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