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Design History

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ludomahe's version from 2017-05-14 05:50

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El Lissitzky, Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge (1919)

lithographic Soviet propaganda poster

Russian Constructivism

*Universal messages through abstraction

*The intrusive red wedge symbolises the bolsheviks, who are penetrating and defeating their opponents, the White movement, during the Russian Civil War.
Alexander Rodchenko, Cover for Novyi Lef, no. 6 (1927)

Russian Constructivism.
Photo Collage, on a diagonal (Implied motion)
Gerrit Rietveld, Shroeder House
(1924-5)

De Stijl.
*Privacy in open space (moving walls)
*Standardization
*geometric, resembling a Mondrain painting
Gerrit Rietveld, Red and Blue Chair
(1918, painted 1923)

De Stijl
*Dutch
*Like a 3D Mondrain painting. Every piece of wood serves a purpose and references each other in form.
Vilmos Huszar, Lettering for De Stijl Magazine (1917-18)

De Stijl
Dutch
Breaking down imagery and text into standardized parts
Georg Muche and Bauhaus workshops, Haus am Horn Kitchen, Bauhaus Exhibition (1923)

Bauhaus
German
FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION
One continuous counter
Standardization! Geometry!
Freeing up Women's time.
Marcel Breuer, Breuer Chair (1928)

*German
*TWO LEGS, minimal material and bare material. Has give to it. Manufactured by Thonet, could be broken down into parts.
Herbert Bayer, universal alphabet (1926)

Bauhaus
Letters made of logical geometry. Standardization.
Difficult to read, though.
german
Joost Schmidt, Bauhaus exhibition poster (1923)

*Bauhaus
*German
*The grid on an angle! Geometry! Put in public places, advertising for the exhibition that but Bauhaus "on the map."
Jan Tschichold, Poster for Constructivist Exhibition (1937)

Germany
Bauhaus
Clear, simple lay out unitizing styles from De Stijl and constructivism.
Edward Johnston, Underground “Railway” type (1916)

British
Made for the London Underground.
English Modernism. Made to make the train system easier to understand and look more professional.
H.C. Beck, Underground Map (1933)

Modernism
*British
*London Underground.
*Used abstraction to make the train map easier to understand-- set forth a system that is used for maps of this sort today.
*Got ideas from electric circuts
J.E. Ruhlmann, Grand Salon, Hotel d’un Collectionneur (1925)

French
Moderne.
Softening of Modern, decorative.
Raoul Dufy, wallpaper design (1929)

Moderne.
*French
*Softening of Modern, decorative. But still touching on modern art and design,
A.M. Cassandre, Dubonnet poster
(1934)

Art Deco
*French
*Branding!
Le Corbusier, Interior of Pavilion de l’Esprit Nouveau
(1925)

Moderne/ Art Deco
*French
*Embraced standardized building materials.
*Paris Exposition des Arts Décoratifs of 1925
*Incorporated a tree.
Alvar Aalto, Paaimio Chair (1931)

Modernism.
*Finnish
*Bent wood, ergonomic design, form follows function, industrial materials easy to replicate because it originally was for a tuberculosis sanatarium
Paul Frankl, “Skyscraper” bookcase (1926)

Moderne.
*USA
*Furniture that celebrates industrial materials and advancements
Carl Breer, Airflow
(1934)

American Interwar Industrial Design
*USA
*Aerodynamic, yo, Streamlining
*ugly car did terrible, but great idea
Raymond Loewy, Coldspot Super Six
(1935)

American Industrial Design
*USA
*Streamlining, the new kitchen, ease
Leonid, poster for Volksempfanger Radio
Nazi propaganda poster
(1936)

Volks Culture
*"Germany Listens to the Fuhrer with the People's receiver"
*uses new material→ plastic
*Broadcast Hitlers voice as a way of unifying and often feeding people misinformation
*Used traditional typeface, as more modern ones were associated with rebellion (constructivism, for example)
Ferdinand Porsche, Volkswagen
(1937)

Industrial Design w/ Volks Culture “values”
*"people's car"
*Nazi-supported, able to be used for war efforts
*Provides working class with affordable stuff man
*Remember people were told to give money to the government in return for cars but they never got them
*Promoted unity and loyalty
Advisory Committee on Utility Furniture, Mahogany table chair
(1945)

WWII design/Industrial
*Britian
*Europe during WWI, civilian austerity= patriotism
*practical, and stripped down
*basic forms
Levittown Housing
(c. 1949)

After WWII
*USA
*The "American Dream" populuxe
*suburbia conformity the appeal of owning your own house
*Organized community structures
Harley Earl, Cadillac Eldorado Convertible (1953)

American Pop Culture
*Populuxe
*USA
*luxury
*artificial obsolescence through styling
*look like a rocket ship
Eero Saarinen, Tulip Chair
(1956)
Organic Design

*American Postwar Design (WWII)
*USA
*Less clutter by having one leg! Plastic finish for super industrial look.
Charles Eames, Lounge Chair
(1956)
Moderne. Luxury Populuxe, Post War WII design.
*USA
*"The Throne" fine materials
*Plyformed wood
Paul Rand, advertisement for Coronet Brandy (1947)
American Postwar (WWII)/ Modernist
*USA
*Branding! (character)
*new technology
Corradino D’Ascanio for firm Piaggio, Vespa
(1946)
Modern Italian design, after WWII.
*Efficient and inexpensive.
*Streamlined and made to look nonthreatening and easy to use.
*Personal freedom.
*Italy
Muller & Oberheim, Kitchen Machine (1957)
Modernism after WWII.
*Streamlining, efficiency in the kitchen. Importance of corporate identity (Braun)
*German
Adrain Frutiger, Univers typeface
(1950)
Post WWII design.
*Variation in stroke width makes it easier to read with still the cleanness of sanserif.
*Many fonts with variation of width and weight (a system).
*Swiss
Josef Müller-Brockman, Poster for Less Noise
(c. 1960)
International Typographic Style
*tension through color, cropping and use of diagonals.
*grid system
*Swiss
Tom Geismar, Mobil oil trademark (1964)
Corporate Design
*Post war, brand identity, incorporation of modern design and international typography in main stream
*part of larger system
Paul Rand, IBM annual report with photograph of IBM electric typewriter designed by Eliot Noyes (1958)
*Corporate Design
*Corporate identity, bauhaus ideals in main stream
*USA
Wes Wilson, Concert poster
(1967)
Psychedelic/ Anit-Design
*A style associated with hippies and rock music.
*Rebellion against "rules" of design and legibility
*USA
*reduced legibility to make people slow down
*Mirror the experience of stroboscopic light shows
Archizoom, Elettro Rosa model bed (1967)
Theoretical Design/Anti-design

*"new modes of living"
*"Anti-design" freeing up designers
*USA, for MoMA
Honda Motor Company, Honda Civic
(1975)
Radical Design
*Japanese car that became very popular in US because of fuel efficiency
*During the 1973 oil crisis
Ettore Sottsass, Jr., Tartar Table
(1985)
Postmodern
*Memphis-- industrial designers free of contacts able to made design without limits or rules
*Not totally functional or marketable
*Italy
Robert Venturi, Chippendale Chair
(1978-84)

Postmodern
*Mocking new design, utilizing kitsch
*Decoration
*Plastic laminate
*Manufactured by Knoll International
*Italian
Ron Arad, “Big Easy Volume 2” (1988)
Postmodern
*Industrial steel
*mass product
*hand welded steel
*Britain
Neville Brody, record jacket for Cabaret Voltaire
(1980)
Punk
*Britain
*referencing the cabaret voltaire in Zurich because they want ti be as hip as they were
*Rebellion from international/ Swiss design
"The Will To Style" outlining the ideals of De Stijl -1922
“The machine is an example of intellectual discipline.” Simplicity and clarity are vital. Talking about the “new style” which will transcend individuality. “De Stijl Group… spiritual reconstruction of europe.”
Van Doesburg
"Eyes Which do not See Automobiles" The house is a machine for living in. Relates standardization in production to that in architecture, there should be standards. Standards=Perfection, Bauhaus/Modern Architecture

1923
Le Corbusier
"What Consumer Engineering Really Is"
American Advertiser, believed in artificial obsolescence and "good design" as a way of escaping the Depression. People want “new” things. Greater success from more production. Consumer engineering→ planned obsolescence

1932
Calkins
"Streamlining"

Everything is being streamlined. All about streamlining, what should be streamlined, what is streaming, etc. It is everywhere.
1934
Bel Geddes
“Bauhaus Manifesto and Program” (1919)
served as a director of the bauhaus, he also designed the new building for the bauhaus. Talking about setting up the bauhaus. Aims of the bauhaus. Basically the bauhaus will be the best of the best with everything. Layout of how they will instruct students.
Walter Gropius
"The Designer's Place in Industry" Industrial Designer, a good designer has artists, mechanical and marketing sense and isn't full of himself. “Savior of industry” Brings broader design.


1940
Van Doren
"Peaceful uses of Atomic Energy" Outlined a future with cheap and plentiful energy

1953
Eisenhower
"Organic Designs in Home Furnishings"
Designer, creator of Selectric Typewriter, bring organic forms back. Furniture determined by way of life, not as modern as we think.
1941
Noyes
"What is Modern Design?" is is practicle, expressive, appropriate, express the materials (dont make them to be something they're not), simple, ultiziling technology

1950
Kaufmann
"The Kitchen Debate"

Capitalism= good quality consumer products!politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. Capitalism vs. Communism

1959
Nixon and Khrushchev
"Program of the Hochschule fur Gestaltung" bauhaus school of design

1958
Ulm, Germany designed by Max Bill
“Towards Universal Type”-1935.
Modernist, influences by De Stijl movement. Talking about creating a typeface everyone can understand. “The similar the shape of the letter, the easier the type is to see” One letter type alphabet. No capitals.
Herbert Bayer
"Design for the Real World" wrote about the downfalls of industrialization-- unnecessary, dangerous and environmentally destructive products. He challenged artificial obsolescence. Designers should work for social good!

1971
Papanek
"Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth" Conserve resources!

1969
Buckminster Fuller
“What is New Typography?”-1927
Constructivist painter & Advertising Designer. Believer in application of modern typography, argue the rightness of the new methods. “New Typography is an objective and impersonal presentation, free of individuality.” One duty, to be objective and typical. Everything in the type needs purpose.
Walter Dexel
memorize

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