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Design History 01

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bamezisu's version from 2017-03-16 02:23

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Question Answer
"On the International Results of the Exhibition of 1851"Henry Cole, 1852, chief organizer of the Great Exhibition in England in "The Crystal Palace." -examples of good design -first greeting cards -design in the world
"The Nature of Gothic"John Ruskin, 1853, Gothic revival - workers need freedom and dignity, found in the imperfections of ornament -Victorian Britain sucks and everyone's a slave -foundation for arts and crafts movement -everything that is good must be imperfect - don’t encourage manufacture
"The Capitalist Character of Manufacture"Karl Marx, 1867, the machine only furthers the workers as slaves working to the will of the "master". -machines are used to make goods more cheaply
"The Lesser Arts"William Morris, 1877, socialism, arts and crafts movement- reasonably prices, well-designed stuff for homes by skilled craftsmen, influenced by john ruskin- sham work is hurtful to everyone - the world should be perfect and beautiful - aesthetics and quality craftsmanship are linked to social conditions(things will get better if we go back to handmaking
"Principles of Decorative Design"Christopher Dresser, 1873, aesthetic movement, anglo-japanese, plants, botanist, natural motifs, promoted machine production and functionalism, exposed joints and rivets, -first real industrial designer -anyone can find material but the material is only valuable after its been manipulated.
"Decorative and Applied Art"Candace Wheeler, 1893, american woman designer, worked with tiffany, helped woman into the design field by exploiting feminized fields like needlepoint and domestic design -good design requires gifts of grace, composition and education
"A Chapter on Design and Construction of Modern Furniture"Henry van der Velde, 1897 Belgian, innovator of art nouveau, promoted mass production -wish to design for mass production - create “rational”, “honest”, “modern” and well suited machine manufacture - “man’s worth can be measured by the number of people who have derived use and benefit from his life’s work
"Ornament and Crime"Adolf Loos, 1910, functionalism, ornament is crime, evolution = loss of ornament, architect
-people are being consumed by ornament… must stop. -wasted manpower -in a velvet suit is a bafoon
"The Art And Craft of the Machine"Frank Lloyd Wright, 1901, american perspective, the machine is beautiful, made prairie houses - the machine can bring great good -machine universal educator -open your eyes machine is good -
"The Principles of Scientific Management"Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911, the guy who worked to perfect the movement of workers, nothing unnecessary, taylorism -measuring workers productivity -there is a science to everything, even shoveling -
"Machinery, the new Messiah"Henry Ford, 1928, believed in perfect union of man and machine and a mortality of workers, "good" workers get paid more -no more “drudgery” in the home -no smoking, drinking, etc.
Édouard Muller
The Vices and the Virtues central panel of the Garden of Armide (wallpaper)
(c. 1855)
Rococo Revival
*decorative arts
*wallpaper to make rooms appear larger
*some wallpapers made attainable to the middle class
Wedgwood Queensware plates (tureen, bowl, covered dish) (c. 1780)Industrial Revolution
*sold in the first modern showroom
*first efforts of standardization → preprinted borders
Using mass-production to make cheap products that look handmade
Linked armchairs (c. 1865) Rococo Revival
*overstuffed silk
*conversation piece
*lightweight forms
*In Napoleon III’s home origionally
Vincent Figgins, six lines pica no. 1 (fat face) (1821) Print Culture
*Beginning of print in the public
* used to attract attention
*Created for wood typeBeginning of print in the public, used to attract attention
Vincent Figgins, two-line great primer sans-serif (1830) Print Culture
*Beginning of print in the public
* used to be legible
*changing technology called for new invention
Beginning of print in the public, used to be legible
J. Paxton, Crystal Palace (1851) Gothic Revival
*Where the Great Exhibition was held, meant to show off "good design" and make the gothic revival look silly and useless
*Big picture thinking
Philip Webb, The Morris Adjustable Chair (1866) Arts and Crafts movement,
* making the home a comfortable place
*home should be a safe place where you don’t have to work
making the home a comfortable place for lounging
W. Morris, Pimpernel Wallpaper Design, block-printed (1876) Arts and Crafts movement
*block-printed
*bringing nature and craft into the home
*naturalism
W. Morris, The Green Dining Room (1866) Arts and Crafts Movement
*Bringing back the handmade
*”by man for man”
*rediscovery of craft
*integrating art into life
W. Morris, The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer (1896) Arts and Crafts movement
*Every page is considered and designed *woodblock printing
*make things beautiful (belief in bringing back the handmade
Shaker Ladderback Chair (1830-1870) Arts and Crafts movement
*functional, with no embellishment
*function is close to beauty and godliness
*meant to hang on wall
*symmetry
Edward William Godwin, Aesthetic movement, Ebonized Buffet (c. 1867) Aesthetic Movement
*influenced by japanese work
*craftsmanship
J.M. Whistler, Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room (1876) Aesthetic Movement, Aesthetic Movement
*art for arts sake
* beauty and embellishment
*japanese influence
C. Dresser, Leaves and Flowers from Nature (from the Grammar of Ornament) (1856) Aesthetic Movement
*Nature is a form of ornamentation
*emphasis on observation of nature
*interest in botney
C. Dresser, Silver Plate Designs (c. 1879) Aesthetic Movement
*inspired by Japanese design
*simplicity, new material
*radical design
L.C. Tiffany, “Waterlily” table lamp (1904-15) Aesthetic Movement (US)
*Made electricity less scary
* used cheap leftover glass, put together by workers
L.C. Tiffany, Glass Flasks (c. 1885) Aesthetic Movement (US)
*Influenced by vases from the middle east, where tiffany traveled.
*capitalized on expensive things
gold thing that is spirialyH. van de Velde, candelabrum (1902) Art Nouveau, Belgium,
* the line
*fusing esthetic expression with production
H. van de Velde, poster for Tropon, color lithograph (1896) Art Nouveau: Belgium
*advertisement for eggs, branding, whiplash lines
*Gesamtkunstwerk ("synthesis of the arts")
*color lithograph
Émile Gallé, Waterlilies Vase (c. 1901) French Art Nouveau,
*wanted to blur lines between art forms,
* often using literature in his works,
*wanted art to have no boundaries
H. Guimard, Paris Metro Entrance (1900) Art Nouveau: France
* Brought art nouveau to a public space
*created they typeface for this project
H. Toulouse-Lautrec, Moulin Rouge-La Goulue, (1898) Art Nouveau
*France, advertisement for moulin rouge, *poster for public display
*color lithography
*time of the development of an entire form of entertainment outside Paris
A. Mucha, poster of Sarah Bernhardt in Gismonda (1895) Art Nouveau, France,
*advertisement for a play
* “Father of Modern Advertising”
* “Father of women's liberation”
*pulling ideas from history of ‘idealized women’
*decorative formula
C.R. Mackintosh, Glasgow School of Art (c. 1898) Art Nouveau
*integrated art nouveau with traditional scottish atheistic.
*Women where a big part of this school (the MacDonald) sisters
*simplicity, symmetry, mystery
J. Hoffman, Skyscraper Basket (c. 1905) Art Nouveau
*Less curly and anxious and more geometric forms
K. Moser, Lady’s Writing Desk (1903) Austrian Art Nouveau
*Disappearing chair
*The straight lines, flat surfaces and stylized ornament are all typical of Moser's work.
*elongated figures, but geometric
F.L. Wright, Ward Willits’ House (1900-1902)
Prairie school movement
* meant to neutralize the gendered rooms of the house and bring the family together in a natural, casual way.
* “The Arts and Craft of the Machine”
*low ceiling, large windows, horizontal line
F.L. Wright, Dining room furniture (1900)
Prairie School Movement: Cross of arts and crafts and mechanization
* (harmony in the home) meant to neutralize the gendered rooms of the house and bring the family together in a natural, casual way.
*functionalism
Thonet Chair
(1836-40)
Mechanization: standardized parts
*Used steam to bend wood
*can be broken down and shipped all over the world
Model T Ford (1908)
Mechanization:continuous assembly line
Cars (new form of transportation)
*need for more roads
* “Build your own”:could be tailored to rich or poor
*assembly lines: things made in parts, standardization
Singer Sewing Machine
(c. 1865)
Mechanization: Standardization, *Made making clothes way easier, *Brought machines to the home
*Civil war: began the standardization of sizes
*sweatshops
Catalogue page, clock department, Montgomery Ward catalogue
(1895)
Mechanization
*the beginning of mailing production to consumers, *standardization with some changes
R. Riemerschmid, Cutlery (1911-12)
Mechanization: German Werkbund
*form follows function (not overly lovely, practical)
R. Riemerschmid, Kitchen ensemble (1905)
Mechanization: German Werkbund
*form follows function, everything has its place
*easy assembly, easier to sell over vast distance
P. Behrens, Water Kettle (1909),
Mechanization: German werkbund,
Graphic Design→ grid set up on flyers and in catalogues to present different types of kettle. It’s electric! Efficiency
“Systems thinking” → Bigger system
P. Behrens, Turbine Hall (1909)
Mechanization: German werkbund
AEG designed: machines, electric, and the products
Electric monopoly
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