Dermatology - Midterm

xotewomu's version from 2015-07-20 10:52


Question Answer
3 major levels of skinepidermis, dermis, subcutis
what is the main component of the epidermiskeratin
main component of dermiscollagen
major component of the subcutisfat


Question Answer
4 major cells of epidermisKeratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans (immune cells), merkels cells (nerve cells)
main producer of keratinkeratinocytes
what is the main component of all epitheliumskeratin!!!
what are the 4 or 5 layers of the epidermisbasale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
what is the first layer that holds dead keratinocytescorneum
2 phases of basal layer kereatinocytes life cyclesynthetic and degredative
what happens in synthetic phase of keratinocytesformation and arragnement of keratin filaments
what happens in the degradative phase of keratinocyte life cycledeath and consolidation of the keratin and contents
what makes up the hydrophobic mortar between keratinocytesglycoproteins and lipids
what is filaggrinbinds keratin filaments and epithelial cells... holds mature keratin together
what are odland bodiesthey provide a barrier to water loss and hold cells together
where are odland bodies producedin the spinous zone
what is the major function of the water barrier in human skinto prevent water loss
what is the embryologic origin in melanocytesneural crest
who has more melanocytes, white ppl or blackthey are all the same
what determines skin color and hair colorsize, shape, number of melanosomes!!!
why do melanocytes have halosthey lack desmosomes, so they arent stuck to the cells around them
where in the cells do melanocytes make melanosomesnear the golgi
how do melanosomes move to keratinocytesthey are moved down the melanocyte dendrites and into keratinocytes
function of langerhans cellsimmune cells that act as APCs (monocytic)
what eliminates langerhans cellsUV radiation
function of merkels cellstouch receptors
four components of basement membranehemidesmosomes, lamina lucida, basal lamina, fibrous components

Epidermal Appendages

Question Answer
3 eccrine unit typesspiral, straight, coiled
where are most eccrine units foundpalms, armpits, soles
what type of response is sweatingcholinergic, sympathetic
what is the purpose of eccrine glandsdissapate heat
what are the 3 buds that form a pilar hair folliclearrector pilli attachment, sebaceous unit, apocrine unit
what determines curly hairthe x section of the hair is oval rather than round
briefly decribe the 3 hair growth phasesanagen phase takes 4 years, then a catogen and telogen phase that in total combine for a collective 6 year phase of hair growth.... each individual hair is independent
apocrine unit opens to the _____ of the hairinfundibulum
sebaceous gland buds off of the _____ ____ _____ in developmentupper hair follicle
what is the primary cause of acnepilar patency disappears
how long does it replace a toe nail18 months
how long does it take to replace a fingernail5 months


Question Answer
what is the origin of the dermismesoderm
what is the major material of the dermiscollagen
collagen makes up ____% of the body weight70
type ___ collagen makes up most of the dermisI
type ___ collagen is deformed in epidermolysis bullosa simplexVII
Elastic fibers are made up of ___ and ___protein filaments and elastin
ground substance in the dermis is made up of ___ and ____GAGs and sulfates
_____ is the major stress resistant material of the skincollagen
marfans syndrome is a defect in _____ fiberselastic
upper subpapillary plexus would have _____ while lower (deep) horizontal plexuses would notcapillaries
unmyelinated fibers are all ____ class nerve fibersC
____ is a blood thinning agent contained in mast cellsheparin
describe the structure of fat in the subcutisfat lobules surrounded by septae of collagen
ectodermal layer develops into ____ and ____epidermis and neruoectodermis
the _____ is the only gland not derived from the ectodermeccrine

Melanocyte Pathology

Question Answer
Vitiligomelanocyte destruction by immune system
albinismdefect in melanin production
freckleincreased melanin pigment, normal melanocytes
neviincreased benign melanocytes
melanomaincreased malignant melanocytes

acute, subacute or chronic

Question Answer
allergic contactacute
blistering disorderssubacte
most spongiotic disorderssubacute
foot spongiotic disorderschronic


Question Answer
what causes a maculehemosiderin, hyperpigmentation, capillary dilation, purpura
what causes a patchlarger macule
what causes a papulecell infinltrates, local cell proliferation, or deposits
acantholysis vs viral vesiclesbreaking of the desmosems is acantholytic while breaking of the cell is viral
what should be done with pustulesgram stains!
what is the total transit time of a keratincyte in skin27 days
difference between ulcer and erosionulcer extends into the dermis and possibly subcutis, will scar... erosion is only in epidermis, no scarring

location of vesicle

Question Answer
scalded skin syndromesubcorneal
friction blisterupper spinous
pemphigus folliaceousupper spinous
spongioticmid spinous
herpesmid spinous
pemphigus vulgarislower spinous
bullous pemphigoidsubepidermal

scale variations

Question Answer
superficial delicate goldenimpetigo
thin dry silverypsoriasis
thick, yellowishfavus
thick hard tough3rd deg burns
lamellated, elevated, brown/blakcsyphillis

Classifications of skin diseases

Nail disorders

Question Answer
onycholysisdetachment of nail from bed
onychoscheziasplitting of the nail, nutritional issue
onychogryphosismalformation of the nail
onychodystrophymal growing nail plate, uncommon
onychauxissub-ungual keratin buildup
muehrkes linestransverse white bands, defective prot synth
beaus linestransverse ridges, disruption in matrix
mees lineskeratinization of ventral nail plate
half and half nailsloss of lunula and onycholysis together
_______ _____ ______ does not occur without stress on the nail or matrix damagemedian nail dystrophy
Onychomycosis __is__/___is not___ a clinical diagnosisis


Question Answer
4 phases of fungal nail developmentprecursor condition, need fungus present, need spread along skin, established infection
uncommon or common to have fungus in normal nailuncommon
most common cause of nailbed keratinizationmicrotrauma
what is the biggest precursor to fungal nailsnailbed keratinization
2 things needed to cure the fungal nailsfix the fungus and fix the keratinization of the nail bed
describe how onycholysis causes keratinizationthe nail becomes separated from the bed causing the keratin below to occupy thr space
biomechanical defromity --> ___________ --> keratinization --> ___________microtrauma, onychomycosis
3 most common nails found to be traumatized, in order1st 5th 2nd
what % of dystrophic nail units are not mycotic30%
type 1 nail dystrophyno fungus, no keratin, just matrix damage (matts toe)
type 2 nail dystrophyno fungus, some keratinization, trauma, (psoriasis)
type 3 nail dystrophymicotic, not keratinized, only the nail is fungal
type 4 nail dystrophyfungal, keratinized, ugly nail

Fungal testing

Question Answer
which test is most sensitivePAS stain
which test is the least sensitiveCULTURE

Types of dermatitis

Question Answer
4 types of spongiotic dermatitiseczematous, dyshidrotic, allergic contact, Id reaction
describe spongiotic dermatitisinflammatory cells throwing out mediators that cause increase permiability... intercellular edema... will see halos around cells
what will you see around cells in spongiotic dermatitishalos from fluid excess
what are the little white lines seen in the halos around cells in the histo slides of spongiotic dermatitisdesmosomes
3 timeframes of dermatitisacute, subacute, chronic
distribution of eczematous numular dermatitistrunk or lower extremity
who gets eczematous numular dermatitisyoung and the old
what does eczematous numular dermatitis look likelittle papules and vesicles, come together to form plaques
course of eczematous numular dermatitiscan be lifelong, or just a long course
management of eczematous numular dermatitiscreams and topical corticosteroids
distribution of dishydrotic dermatitisfingers toes soles
what does dishydrotic dermatitis look likeacute are deep vesicles, looks like tapioca
development of dishydrotic dermatitisrapid onset
how log for dishydrotic dermatitis to go away4-8 weeks
treatment of dishydrotic dermatitiscorticosteroid, wet dressing, PUVA (just give it the ocean)
cause of Id reactionarises as a result of a primary tinea infection
how to generally get rid of id reactioneliminate the primary dermatitis
who gets allergic contact dermatitismiddle aged people with a good immune system
what is urushiolthe hapten in poison ivy
who gets Atopic dermatitisless than 5 y/o will have 90%
when will atopuc dermatitis be worse (time of year)winter
what is a dennie-morgan signexaggerated eyelids in Atopic dermatitis
what is the cause of skin changes in atopic dermatitisself induced scratchning and rubbing
what do you have to rule out for atopic dermatitisHSV herpes, and eczema
treatment for Atopic dermatitiswet dressings, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, PUVA
what is the source of most Irritant contact dermatitis casesoccupational hazards, chemicals
what do you clinically see with Irritant contact dermatitiserythema, vesicles, bullae (blisters)
where is the most common place for irritant contact dermatitisthe hands
what would the patch result be for irritant contact dermatitispositive