Nerve supply to a muscle which lies across a joint not only supplies that muscle but also supplies the joint underneath and the skin overlying the muscle.
4 contiguous spinal segments regulate the movement of a joint.Upper 2 segments control one movements and lower 2 segments regulate the opposite movement.
A law stating that bone density changes in response to changes in the functional forces on the bone. Wolff (1836-1902) proposed that changes in the form and function of bones, or changes in function alone, are followed by changes in the internal structure and shape of the bone in accordance with mathematical laws. Thus, in mature bone where the general form is established, the bone elements place or displace themselves, and decrease or increase their mass, in response to the mechanical demands imposed on them. The theory is supported by the observation that bones atrophy when they are not mechanically stressed and hypertrophy when they are stressed. Although Wolff's proposal relates specifically to bone, the law has also been applied to other connective tissues such as ligaments and tendons.
Gardner’s concept of joint innervation
Each nerve innervates a specific region of the joint capsule and that the part of the capsule which is made taut by a given muscle is innervated by the nerve supplying its antagonist.
Du Bois formula
for calculating surface area of the body.A=WxHx71.84,where W = weight in kg, H = height in cm.
Neuron theory of Waldeyer
Contact between neurons is by contiguity and not by continuity.
In progressive lesions of the recurrent laryngeal nerve abductor muscles of larynx (Post crico-arytenoid) are 1st to be paralysed last to recover as compared to adductors. In functional paralysis of recurrent laryngeal nerve adductors are 1st paralysed and recover the last.
Wallens law of degeneration
If a spinal nerve is completely divided the distal portion undergoes fatty degeneration.
Wagner and Grossmans hypothesis
In recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis the cricothyroid muscle is spared which keeps the cords in paramedian position due to its adductor action.
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