Derm sa med dermatophytosis and demodex

nschwart's version from 2016-01-31 19:10

Section 1

Question Answer
Are all dermatophytes zoonotic?yes!
Dermatophytes can be confused with what?Endocrine disorders which usually give hair loss with good symmetry but ring worm can do this also
Microsporum canis?Actually harbored by cats. Should be felis! This is by far the most common dermatophyte! This is why when you get ring worm they ask about your cat! Cats are a big source. Detect with woods lamp which causes flourescence. only microsporum CANIS will light up with a woods lamp
Microsporum gypseum?SOIL pathogen. See it in feet and nose usually. NON FLOURESCENT. Not as common.
Trichophyton mentagrophytes?Nasty one. Intense inflammatory reactions. Look like cotton fibers with hyphae all over. Grows very rapidly. Very rare. Jack russels seem to be pretty predisposed to getting this compared to other dogs. TRICHOPHYTON IS ININ RODENTRODENTS! Non flourescent and highly inflammatory
Clinical findings of ring worm? LesionsAlopecia which dermatophytes should always be top diff especially in cat, crusting and scaling. Ring worm very common in persian and himalayan cats. Forms epidermal collarettes
Will you find inflammation with dermatophytes?It is variable. Most dermatophytes will go way without any treatment you just want to treat to prevent environmental contamination.
Which phase of the hair growth cycle is affected by dermatophtes?the anagen phase where they're growing
Tx to NEVER use for dermatophytes?NEVER USE STEROIDS EVER.
Differential dx for dermatophytes?Demodex, bacterial pyoderma, seborrheic dermatitis, endocrine
Hair loss in a cat top diff?dermatophytes!
Diagnostic tools for dermatophytes?Woods lamp only for microsporum canis, trichogram KOH prep, and biopsy.
Diagnostic tools for dermatophytes (cultures)Fungal culture. Most vets do like 1 a year. You should be doing like 2-3 a day. The culture cost 4 dollars but it cost 70 dollars to send it off. Can make you money
Diagnostic sample collection for fungal cultureSelect hairs on the outside of the lesions. Can use a toothbrush because sterile in package. Also DTM
TX for dermatophytes GriseofulvinGRISEOFULVIN which is the only licensed treatment of dermatophytes in dogs and horse. Know that for boards only. Use in animals over 3 months of age and give with fatty meals. It is teratogenic. NEVER GIVE TO CATS WITH FIV THIS IS A NAVLE QUESTION EVERY SINGLE YEAR. Side effects are BM toxicity.
Tx for dermatophytes KetoconazoleKetoconazole should be given with food. Is teratogenic and should never be given to preggo animals. Side effects are increased ALT so never give with steroids, decrease CYP450, upsets GI, and NEVER GIVE TO CATS EVER.
Tx for dermatophytes Itraconazolegive w/ food. Teratogenic. Dermal necrosis can be a side effect in dogs
Additonal txfluconazole, terbinafine like lamasil (good for kornified tissue)
Topical tx for dermatophytesClotrimazole, miconazole THE BEST ONE AND EASY CHEAP, thiabendazole, ketocon, avoid steroids !
Topical tx addtionalLIME SULFUR DIP. very safe very good for young animals. Can stain and tarnish jewlery. Put elizabethan collar on if used on cats because cats will lick it and can die.... dogs dont get sick lol

Section 2

Question Answer
What looks like demodex?Pyoderma and dermatophytes so rule them out
How to dx demodex?Skin scrapes
Tx for demodex?Amitraz, rotenone, ivermctin, milbemycin
Demodex how is it spread?From mom to puppies in first 1-3days! this is why you see it on nose and muzzle first.
Localized demodex age and distribution? Tends to spread outward usually in dogs less than 2
Tx of Localized demodex (juvenile)?Usually gone after a while but if doesn't get better in a month treat because it can become generalize and the client will blame you. Topicals such as rotenone and goodwinol
Generalize demodex age? predisposing factors? Genetics?usually juvenile, these dogs should be removed from the breeding pool. Stress can be a cause.
Lesions associated with generalize demodex?Alopecia, papules, pustules, collarettes, comedones (mites push hair out and plugged with keratin), crusts, only pruritic if bacteria are present. If itchy, rid of bacteria first and see if it helps.
Feline demodex catiEXTREMELY rare, associated with FIV. Look for underlying cause. Cats are unknown to be harbors of this.
Feline demodex gatoiSurface mite that looks stumpy without a tail. Causes hair loss
Tx of demodex gatoiLIME sulfur dip is the only known treatment and is also antipruritic. Treat all cats in contact. Applied once a week for 6 weeks.
Generalized demodex adult onset/causeusually the reason is because of stuff like steroid tx and/or cushings and hypothyroid
Tx of adult generalize demodexNeutering can help. Infections can be as a result or can be 2ndry. Do not use steroids dude. Amitrz shampoo can work, clip hair first.
Amitraz is highly toxic to whom?cats and horse. Apply every 2 weeks and scrape every two weeks.
Cure for demodex?two negative skin scrapings 2 weeks apart!!!!! then follow up with one final dip
If you see any side effects caused by amitraz what can you do?REVERSE with yohimbine, atapamezole (alpha 2 antagonist)
Alternative tx for demodex?Milbemycin and ivermectin, advantage multi, certifect (amitraz and fipronil)
Ivermectin rules?older than 3 months of age. Do not use in collie, shetland sheepdog, border collie, australian shepherds, old english sheep dogs. Signs of toxicity are hypersalivation, mydriasis and coma...... treat with lipid therapy!
What is safer than amitraz and ivermectin for demodex?Fluralaner in puppies over 6 months. Fleas and tick killing. Q3