Demographic characteristics and processes

icer215's version from 2016-08-24 16:45


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AgeThe length of time that a person has lived. According to CIA World Fact book, the median ages of people in United States: 36.8 years-Males: 35.5 years & Females: 38.1 years
As of 2010, age distribution was0-14 years: 2% of the people 15-64 years: 67% of the people 65 years and over: 8% of the people
GenderRange of masculinity and femininity characteristics in a person
Characteristics includebiological sex, gender identity, and sex-based social structures
Human sex ratio – males: females in a population. Approximately 1:1 in our human species
Gender imbalance can occur due various reasons includingNatural factors, Exposure to pesticides, Environmental contamination, Abortions based on gender, Social factors, Economical factors, Aging
Race and EthnicityAccording to the census, the United States in divided into six ethnic and racial categories
Six ethnic and racial categoriesWhite American, Native American and Alaska Native, Asian American, African American, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, People with two or more races


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White AmericanPeople of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa
Native American and Alaska NativePeople of North, Central, and South America
Asian AmericanPeople of the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent
African AmericanPeople of Sub-Saharan Africa
Native Hawaiian and other Pacific IslanderPeople of Polynesia, Melanesia, or Micronesia
Each racial category may containNon-Hispanic or Latino and Hispanic or Latino Americans. Origins in the Latin-speaking countries of Andorra, Latin America, and Spain. No separate racial category exists for them
Immigration StatusThe movement of people from one country to another that they are not native to. There are various reasons why people leave their country
Economic factorsBetter jobs = better wages
Educational factorsMore opportunities and Better education system


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Personal factorsBased on relationships including family and a partner
There are about 191 millioninternational migrants (about 3% of the population) in the world as of 2005
People that immigrateto new countries have to adapt to different cultures, social structures, language, and etc. As a result, some may gradually lose their original identity, culture, values, and language
Immigration status includesPermanent resident and Future citizens
Sexual OrientationDifficult to establish sexual orientation due to nature of research questions and Various categories of sexual orientation
Various categories of sexual orientation includeHeterosexual, Homosexual, Bisexual
The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior interviewed around 6000 people nationwide between the ages of 14-94. 7% of women and 8% of men identified themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual
In United States, Californiahad the highest percentage of people in the state’s population who identified themselves as LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender) . 4.0% of adults = 1.3 million people / 38 million. In California, same-sex marriage is level


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Demographic TransitionA model that describes population change over time. Developed by demographer Warren Thompson. Transition from pre-industrial to post-industrial economic system à change from high birth and death rate to low birth and death rates
Most developed countriesare in stage 3 and 4 (mature industrial age and post-industrial age)
Most developing countriesare in stage 2 or 3 (mechanization of agriculture/urbanization and mature industrial age)
Stages of Demographic TransitionPre-industrial age, Mechanization of agriculture/urbanization, Mature industrial age, Post-industrial age
1) Pre-industrial ageBoth birth and death rate is high and balanced. Population growth is very slow
2) Mechanization of agriculture/urbanizationImprovement of food supplies decreases the death rate and disease while increases life span. Technology, healthcare, and education improves as well
3) Mature industrial ageDue to access to contraception, increase in wages, urbanization, and a reduction in subsistence agriculture, birth rate falls in this stage
4) Post-industrial ageBoth birth and death rates are low, while population is still pretty high
FertilityThe ability to reproduce. Women are fertile from early teen to around mid forties, while men are fertile throughout their life
Fertility ratenumber of offspring born / mating pair
MigrationChange of residence by an individual or group. Positive value of net migration indicate that there are more people entering the country than those that leave


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Negative value of netmigration indicate that there are more people leaving than entering the country. Affected by environmental, social, and economical factors. It may be permanent or temporary
MortalityFrequency of death in a population. Influence population size. There is a high rate right after birth
Mortality rateis lower in females than males
Group of peoplethat gather to support a certain social/political goal and value. Size can vary. Can be formal and informal
Some social movements includesAnimal rights movement, Anti-war movement, Anti-Bullying movement, Civil rights movement, Cultural movement, Human rights movement, Hunger Relief for Africa movement, & Women’s movement
Stages of social movements involveVariety of reasons emerge ➙ combine ➙ bureaucratize ➙ which then can take several paths like finding some form success, failure, cooptation, repression, or go mainstream
GlobalizationA natural phenomenon in cultures and markets. The process of exchanging goods, technology, knowledge, ideas, capitals, and services internationally. Growing interdependence between different countries in the world


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The process can occur throughInternational trade, Investment movement, Migration
Influence economic and social systemsIncrease in wealth of a country-Trade may occur unfairly due to financial leverage. Political stability. May threaten cultural values
Impact one’s lifestylesMore opportunities for travel, work, etc.
UrbanizationA process that occurs when people move from rural areas into cities (urban areas). Can be driven by local and global economic and social changes. Occurs with modernization and industrialization.
Cities populationincreases while rural area population decreases
More opportunities forjobs, education, entertainment, housing, and transportation in the cities
Influence economy and environmentAs more people move to cities, the prices of goods and services rise in urban areas. Urban heat islands occurs ➙ less vegetation and exposed soil result in sun’s heat to be absorbed by buildings and asphalt ➙ less cooling in the cities