Delhi Sultanate

santhoshv339's version from 2017-02-09 04:41

Early medieval India

Question Answer
What was the political status of India after the death of Harsha ?no political unity in north India for about five centuries
Who were the earliest of the Rajput rulers ?Gujara Prathiharas
Name the great king of Gujara Prathiharas and its capital ?Harischandra and Bhinmal
Along with Gujara Prathiharas which other kingdoms contested for supremacy ?Palas of Bengal and the Rashtrakutas of Deccan
Where did the Chauhans rule ?Ajmir
What caused weakening of Rajputs ?Constant fighting, never united against a common enemy,lack of political foresight and constant rivalries,military methods were out of date,elephants vs horses,religious zeal,leadership,duty of fighting was confined to a particular class, the Kshatriyas,always in a defending position
Which commander of the Umayyad kingdom conquered sind in 712 AD ?Muhammad bin Qasim ,defeated Dahir ruler of Aror,made people zimmis or protected subjects
What happened after Arabs conquest of Sind ?Indian medicine and astronomy,numerals were carried on to arabs
When did Mahmud of Ghazni defeat Jayapala (Hindu Shahi Kingdom)1001AD
When did Ghazni defeat Anandapala near Peshawar ?1008 Battle of Waihind
What was the main aim of Ghazni wrt his raids ?Plundering wealth
What were some of the temples or Cities raided by Ghazni ?Nagarkot in the Punjab hills and Thaneshwar near Delhi,Mathura,Kanuaj,Kalinjar Anhilwad, somnath temple
Who did Ghazni defeat and plunder somnath temple ?Solanki King Bhimadeva I Anhilwad (modern patan)
Who were the poet-laureates in the court of Mahmud ?Firdausi and Alberuni
What did Firdausi write ?Shah Namah.
What did Alberuni write ?Kitab-i-Hind, an account on India
What was the main importance of Ghazni ?paved the way for the Turks and Afghans for futher conquests
What was the main intention of Muhammad Ghori wrt his conquests in India ?Unlike Mahmud of Ghazni, he wanted to conquer India and extend his empire
What were Ghoris two important conquests initially ?Sind and Multan
When did the Battle of Tarain take place ?1191-1192
Where did the first battle of Tarain take place ? Tarain near Delhi
Whom did Muhammad Ghori leave behind to make further conquests in India ?Qutb-uddin Aibak
Which kingdom was defeated after the battle of Chandawar 1193 ?Kanauj (Gahadavala ruler Jayachandra)

Delhi Sultanate

Question Answer
What were the slave dynasties that ruled India between 1206 and 1290 ?Qutbi ,1st Ilbari and 2nd Ilbari
Qutbi dynasty founder and time line ?Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-1211)
First Ilbari dynasty founder and time line ?Iltutmish (1211- 1266)
Second Ilbari dynasty founder and time line ?Balban (1266-1290)
What was the capital of Slave dynasty during Aibak's time ?Lahore
What was the name given by Muslim writers to Aibak ?Lakh Baksh or giver of lakhs because he gave liberal donations
Who was the great scholar patronized by Aibak ?Hasan Nizami
QUTB MINAR was constructed (later completed by Iltutmish) after the name which famous Sufi saint ?Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakthiyar
Who succeded Aibak ?son Aram Baksh later succeded by Iltutmish by defeating Aram Baksh
Aibak appointed Iltutmish as ?iqtadar of Gwalior
Iltutmish shifted his capital from Lahore to ?Delhi
Which king sought asylum from Iltutmish thereby saving his empire from the onslaught of the Mongol Chengiz Khan?Jalaluddin Mangabarni, the ruler of Kwarizam
Which expedition of Iltutmish was unsuccessful ?expedition against the Paramaras of Malwa
How did Iltutmish become the legal sovereign ruler of India ?He received the mansur, the letter of recognition, from the Abbasid Caliph in 1229
Who started the system of hereditary succession to Delhi Sultanate ?Iltutmish by nominating his daughter Raziya
Who were some scholars in court of Iltutmish ?Minhaj-us-Siraj, Taj-ud-din, Nizam-ul-mulk ,Muhammad Janaidi, Malik Qutb-ud-din Hasan and Fakhrul-Mulk Isami
Who completed the construction of Qutb Minar at Delhi ,the tallest stone tower in India ?Iltutmish
Where did Iltutmish build a mosque ? Ajmir
Who introduced the Arabic coinage into India ?Iltutmish
Which coin became a standard in medieval India and remained the basis for modern rupee?silver tanka weighing 175 introduced by Iltutmish
Who created a new class of ruling elite of forty powerful military leaders, the Forty ?Iltutmish
What caused resentment among nobles about Raziya ?She discarded the female apparel and held the court with her face unveiled went for hunting and led the army
Who became prominent after fall of Raziya ?The Forty thereby also a struggle for supremacy between the Sultans and the nobles
Who did Balbal consider as a real threat to the monarchy ?Nobles or the forty
Who was sultan according to Balban ?According to Balban the Sultan was God’s shadow on earth and the recipient of divine grace
What did Balban do to prove his superiority over the nobles ?Balban introduced rigorous court discipline and new customs such as prostration and kissing the Sultan’s feet,appointed spies to monitor the activities of the nobles
What did Balban do to to impress the nobles and people with his wealth and power ?Introduced the Persian festival of Nauroz
How was the relationship of Balbal with Indian Muslims ?Indian Muslims were not given important post in the government
What was given importance durin Balbans reign ?Instead of expanding his kingdom, Balban paid more attention to the restoration of law and order (he also could not fully safeguard India from the Mongol invasions)
Who established a separate military department and reorganized the army ?Balban diwan-i-arz
Who were the robberers who plundered around Delhi and put to death by Balban thereby making roads safe ?Mewatis
Who was the founder of the Khalji dynasty ?Jalaluddin Khalji
What was the time period of The Khalji Dynasty ?1290-1320
What was the nature of Jalaluddin Khalji ?generous and lenient,When the thugs (robbers) looted the country, they were allowed to go after a severe warning, revolts were suppressed but not punished
Where did in 1296 Jalaluddin Khalji take an expedition to ?Devagiri and returned to Kara
What did Alauddin Khalji do to win over hostile nobles and Amirs of Delhi ?made enormous gift, framed regulations to control the nobles
According to Alauddin Khalji what was the reason for rebellions ?general prosperity of the nobles, intermarriages between noble families, inefficient spy-system and drinking liquor
What were the four Ordinances passed by Alauddin Khalji ?confiscated the properties of the nobles,reorganized intelligence system and secret activities of the nobles were immediately reported to the Sultan, public sale of liquor and drugs was totally stopped. Social gatherings and festivities without the permission of Sultan were forbidden
Which writers explains cavalry of Alauddin Khalji ?Ferishta
Which ruler maintained a large standing army and paid army in cash ?Alauddin Khalji
Who introduced the system of branding of horses and descriptive list of soldiers ?Alauddin Khalji
What was the system of branding of horses called ?dagh
What was the system of descriptive list of soldiers called ?Huliya
Why Alauddin Khalji had to introduce price regulations popularly called as Market Reform ?As salaries of army were paid in cash
What were the four market introduced by Alauddin Khalji in Delhi ? 1st for grain, 2nd for cloth, sugar, dried fruits, butter and oil; a third for horses, slaves and cattle; and a fourth for miscellaneous commodities
Each market was under the control of a high officer called ?Shahna-i-Mandi
How was supply of grain ensured in markets ?by holding stocks in government store-houses
what was the market department called ?Diwani Riyasat under an officer Naib-i-Riyasat and Every merchant was registered under the Market department
What were the secret agents who who sent reports to the Sultan regarding the functioning of markets called ?munhiyans
What was done to check prices in markets ?Sultan also sent slave boys to buy various commodities to check prices,punishments for cheating,and Regulations were issued to fix the price of all commodities
Who was the first sultan to order measurement of land ?Alauddin Khalji
How was land revenue collected ?in Cash so that sultan could pay the soldiers in cash
Whose land reforms paved way for further reforms of Sher Shah and Akbar ?Alauddin Khalji
What was the name of Self immolation followed by Rajput women during Alauddin Khalji's invasions called ?Jauhar
Which book describes Rani Padmini episode ?Padmavath written by Jayasi
What was Alauddin Khalji’s greatest achievement ?Conquest of Deccan and the far south
Who were the four dynasties of south conquered by Alauddin Khalji ?Yadavas of Devagiri, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra and the Pandyas of Madurai
Although Alauddin Khalji was illiterate he patronized poets such asAmir Khusrau and Amir Hasan (Alaudhin gave all riches so both amir)
Who built the famous famous gateway known as Alai Darwaza ?Alauddin Khalji
Who constructed a new capital at Siri ?Alauddin Khalji
Who was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty ?Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
What was the time period of Tughlaq dynasty?1320-1414
How was Muhammad bin Tughlaq attitude towards other religions ?He was very tolerant in religious matters
With which countries did Muhammad bin Tughlaq maintain diplomatic relations ?Egypt, China and Iran
Who were contemporaries to Muhammad bin Tughlaq ?Isami, Barani and Ibn Battutah
Who was the only Delhi Sultan who had received a comprehensive literary, religious and philosophical education ?Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Where did Muhammad bin Tughlaq want a second capital ?Devagiri renamed as Daulatabad.
Why did Muhammad bin Tughlaq want Devagiri as a second capital ?so that he might be able to control South India better
Why did Muhammad bin Tughlaq introduce token currency ?There was a shortage of silver through out the world in the fourteenth century, Kublai Khan issued paper money in China
What did Muhammad bin Tughlaq do to faced shortage of Silver coins ?issued copper coins at par with the value of the silver tanka coins
Why was token currency as failure ?Muhammad bin Tughlaq was not able to prevent forging the new coins - the new coins were not accepted in the markets - hence Muhammad bin Tughlaq stopped the circulation of token currency and promised to exchange silver coins for the copper coins - Many people exchanged the new coins but the treasury became empty - According the Barani, the heap of copper coins remained lying on roadside in Tughlaqabad
What did Muhammad bin Tughlaq do in order to overcome financial difficulties ? increased the land revenue on the farmers of Doab (land between Ganges and Yamuna rivers)
What was the result of Muhammad bin Tughlaq's increased land revenue policy ?peasant revolts,fled villages but were caught and punished
What did Muhammad bin Tughlaq later realise as the real solution to financial problems ?adequate relief measures and the promotion of agriculture
What did Muhammad bin Tughlaq do to farmers ?He launched a scheme by whichtakkavi loans (loans for cultivation) were given to the farmers to buy seed and to extend cultivation
Who established a seperate department for agriculture ?Diwan- i- Kohi by Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Who created model farm under the state which was further continued by Firoz Tughlaq ?Muhammad bin Tughlaq
What happended during the latter part of Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s reign ?rebellions by the nobles and provincial governors
What were some rebellions during the latter part of Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s reign ?rebellion of Hasan Shah resulted in the establishment of the Madurai Sultanate - In 1336 the Vijayanagar kingdom was founded - In 1347 Bhamini kingdom was established - The governors of Oudh, Multan and Sind revolted against the authority of Muhammad bin Tughlaq
How does Barani describe Muhammad bin Tughlaq ?According to Baduani, the Sultan was freed from his people and the people from the Sultan. According to Barani, Muhammad bin Tughlaq was a mixture of opposites
Who collected 1300 Sanskrit manuscripts from the Jawalamukhi temple library and got them translated into Persian ?Firoz Tughlaq
What relation did Firoz Tughlaq have with nobles ?strictly followed the advice of the ulemas in running the administration,As he was guided by the ulemas, he was intolerant towards Shia Muslims and Sufis
Who made iqta system (property) heriditory ?Firoz Tughlaq
Did Firoz Tughlaq impose Jiziya ?Yes
Who was the first sultan to impose irrigation tax ?Firoz Tughlaq but dug irrigation canals and wells
What were two canals built by Firoz Tughlaq ?longest canal was about 200 kilometres from Sutlej to Hansi and another canal was between Yamun and Hissar
Who abolished the special tax on 28 items and why ?Firoz Tughlaq as they were against the Islamic law
Who developed royal factories called karkhanas in which thousands of slaves were employed ?Firoz Tughlaq
Who built 300 new towns were built during his reign ?Firoz Tughlaq
Who built Firozabad near Red Fort in Delhi, now called Firoz Shah Kotla ?Firoz Tughlaq
Which old monuments did Firoz Tughlaq repair ?Jama Masjid and Qutb-Minar
What was the name of department for orphans and widows ?Diwan-i-Khairat by Firoz Tughlaq
Who established Free hospitals and marriage bureaus for poor Muslims ?Firoz Tughlaq
Which two famous scholars was patronized by Firoz Tughlaq ? Barani and Afif
Under whose rule was there as marked increas in the number of slaves by capturing the defeated soldiers and young persons ?Firoz Tughlaq
When did Timur invade Delhi ?1398
What were the time period of Sayyids rule ?1414-1451
What was the time period of Lodis rule ?1451-1526
Who was the first Afghan ruler of Delhi sultanate ? Buhlul Lodi while his predecessors were all Turks
Which main regions did Sikandar Lodi annex ?Bihar and Bengal
How was Sikandar Lodi's administration ?Roads were laid and many irrigational facilities were provided for the benefit of the peasantry
What was Sikandar Lodis attitude towards Hindus ? destroyed many Hindu temples and imposed many restrictions on the Hindus
Why did Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India ?Ibrahim Lodi was arrogant,insulted his nobles openly in court and humiliated them, put to death some nobles - His own uncle,Alauddin revolted
When did the first battle of Panipat take place ?1526 between Ibrahim Lodi and babar