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Definitions

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thenewmaster's version from 2017-06-12 20:25

Section English definitions

Question Answer
Precludeprevent from happening
obviatedremoved
projectionProjection is a psychological defense mechanism in which a person attributes his or her own characteristics to another person.
reifyto bring into existence, to regard something abstract as concrete
nascentjust coming into existence and showing signs of future potential
cavalierdisplaying a lack of concern
exhortstrongly encourage to do something
munificenta gift or sume of money more generous than necessary
bequesta legacy/ inheritance
fleetinglasting a very short amount of time
extantstill in existence
halfway housea place of residence for psychiatric patients, exconvicts, and drug addicts to adjust back to life in general society.
listlesslacking energy or enthusiasm
paroxysmalsudden violent outburst
flagellationflogging or beating (flagellation like reaction on skin with eating raw/undercooked shiitake mushrooms)
defervescencewhen the fever subsides
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Section stages of change

Question Answer
Precontemplationnot thinking about change
Contemplationadmit that there is a problem but not ready to change
Preparationready to change
Actionchanging their habits
Maintenancekeeping the habits
Relapsegoing back to old habits
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Section Medical Definitons

Question Answer
Thrombophlebitis the formation of a blood clot in the presence of venous inflammation or injury.
xerosis dry skin, early in stasis dermatitis 
trismusreduced opening of the mouth due to spams of muscles of mastication
obstipationsevere constipation
opisthotonosspasm of the muscles causing backward arching of the head, neck, and spine (in tetanus, meningitis)
phenytoin common nameDilantin
caudal regression syndromeagenesis of sacrum and lumbar spine causes paralysis of legs and dorsiflexed contractures of feet
hollow viscus organ that isn't solid (like small bowel) 
inspissated An increased thickening or diminished fluidity. (seen with meconium in CF)
AURAsymptoms that come on before the headache or seizure
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Section Peds

Question Answer
adenosisAdenosis is characterized by the presence of columnar epithelium or glandular tissue in the wall of the vagina. occurs with DES exposure
chemosisswelling of conjunctive
shinersdark discoloration under the eye seen with allergic rhinitis
salute signcrease above nose
acrocyanosisblue /purple extremities via slow circulation
VBACvaginal birth after C-section (C-section in PMH)
HBV infection causes what type of nephrotic syndromemembranous nephropathy
multiple symmetric contraction episodes of neck, trunk and extremities that occur in spellsinfantile spasms or WEST syndrome. Hypsarrythrmia with asynchronus, chaotic bilateral . Tx with ACTH, pred 2nd line
8y/o w/ difficulty w/ balance while walking, no DTRs, bilateral Babinski and “explosive, dysarthric speech”Friedreich Ataxia, AR. die from CHF from HOCM
2y/o w/ gait disturbance, loss of intellectual fxn, nystagmus and optic atrophy. Cresyl violet metachromatic stainingmetachromatic leukodystrophy. accumulation o cerebroside sulfate from deficiency in arylsulfatase
X-linked genetic disorder typically affecting males. Disrupts metabolism of very-long-chain fatty acids excessive buildup in nervous system, adrenal gland, testes. SX: ataxia, spasticity, hyperpigmentation, increase potassium decrease Na, acidosis adrenoleukodystrophy
developmental delay, no HSM, cherry red macula, progressive neurodegenerationTay-Sachs diz, accumulation of GM2 deficiency of hexosaminidase
HSM, progressive degenration, cherry red maculanieman-pick, lack sphinomyelinase. accumulate sphingomyelin
3 month old with frog leg position, difficult feeding, hypotonia, no DTRs, fasiculation of the tonguewerdnigg-hoffman syndrome
Marie-Charcot-Tooth Diseasefrequent falls, clumsiness, small injuries of hands and feet. associated with pes cavus, foot deformities, LE weakness,
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Section Medicine

Question Answer
VOLAR aspectpalmar side ( verses the dorsal side on the back of the hand)
Scalene nodeVirchow or supraclavicular node
Constitutionalsymptoms that affect the whole body
Occulthidden
Enthesitisinflammation on the site of tendon or ligament attachment
Enthesis connective tissue at the site of tendon or ligament attachment
Obtundedmental blunting with mild to moderate reduction in alertness and a diminished sensation of pain
poikilothermiathe inability to maintain a constant core temperature independent of ambient temperature
parenteraladministered or occurring elsewhere in the body than the mouth and alimentary canal. (IV, IM, or subQ)
Aphasialanguage disorder
agnosiainability to process sensory information and recognize smells, pictures, etc with nothing wrong in sensory organ
Akathisiasensation of restlessness (move frequently)
Apraxiacannot do motor planning
Alexiacannot read words
Agraphiacannot write
Dysarthriaunclear articulation of speech
Eunuchindeterminate sexual characteristics.
Briskincreased reflexes (hyperreflexia e.g. in hyperthyroidism)
HAPpneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after admission, which was not incubating at the time of admission
VAP pneumonia arises after 48–72 hours on endotracheal intubation.
HCAPhospitalized patient for two or more days within 90 days of infection; resided in a nursing home or long-term care facility; received recent intravenous antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy, or wound care within the past 30 days of the current infection; or attended a hospital or hemodialysis clinic.
Conjugate gazemoving eyes in the same direction
PCOS triadhirsutism, anovulation, obesity
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Section internal medicine scores

 

Question Answer
CURB -65for admitting patient with community acquired pneumoniae - Confusion, Uremia (BUN>20), RR >30, Systolic BP less than 90 or diastolic less than 60, age greater than or equal to 65. 1 point for each. 0,1 = outpatient 3,4,5 = inpatient 2 = inpatient observation /supervised outpatient
Labyrinthitis vs vestibular neuritisLabyrinthitis causes tinnitus or hearing loss ( messes with fluid in the labyrinth
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Question Answer
Cushing's triadwitb increased ICP, results in HTN, bradycardia, and irregular respirations
DDX for AMSAEIOU TIPS
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Alcohol, substance abuse
epilepsy, encephalopathy, electolytes, endocrine diseorder
insulin intussuception
overdose, oxygen deficiency
uremia
Trauma, temp abnormality, tumor
infection
poisioning psychiatric conditions
shock, stroke, space-occupying intracranial lesion

 

Question Answer
Ddx for T-wave inversionMI, myocardial contusion, myocarditis, old pericarditis, dig toxicity
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Question Answer
vital signs for AMSfever, hypo/hyperthermia, bradycardia, Tachycardia, hypertension, hypotension, tachypnea, hypoxia
feverinfection, heatstroke, NMS, thyroid storm
hypothermiaexposure, sepsis, myxedema, coma
tachycardiasepsis, hypovolemia, sympathomimetic toxidrome or anticholinergic toxidrome
bradycardiaIncrease ICP, BB overdose, CCB overdose, hypoxia
Hypertensionsympathomimetic toxidrome, intracranial hemorrhage
hypotensionsepsis, hypovolemia, opiate toxidrome, sedative hypnotic toxidrome
tachypneaacidosis, aspirin overdose, hypoxia
hypoxiapneumonia, PE, CHF
unequal pupilsintracranial hemorrahe
nuchal rigiditymeningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage
Rashtoxic shock syndrome, meningococcemia
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Section seizures

Question Answer
partialspecific part of brain
generalizeddiffuse
simpleno LOC
complexLOC
febrile seizuresMC within 6 months to 5 years, with febrile illness
simple verses complex seizuressimple is generalized complex - focal clinical evidence,, lasts less than 15 mins, one in 24 hours.
status epilepticuscontinuous, generalized, convulsive seizures lasting over 5 minutes. 2 or more seizures without regaining consciousness
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section Asthma

Question Answer
mild intermittent<2x/week, <2x night/month, SABA
mild persistent>2x/week, 3/4 night / month, low dose ICS
moderate persistentdaily, >1 night / week but no daily, low dose ICS + LABA OR medium dose ICS
severe persistentcontinual sx, frequent nighttime, Medium dose ICS + LABA
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section tanner staging

Question Answer
stage 1prepubertal
Stage 2male - enlargement of scrotum and testes. scrotum skin reddens and changes in texture. Female - breast bud stage with elevation of breast and papilla (nipple), enlargement of areola.
stage 3male - enlargement of penis length, growth of testes female - further enlargement of breast and areola
stage 4male - increase prenis size with breadth and development of glans, testes and scrotum. scrotum darker. female - areola and papilla (papilla = nipple) form a secondary mound above the level of the breast
stage 5 male - adult genitalia. female - projection of papilla, related to recession of areola
hair s1prepubertal
hair s2sparse growth of long, slightly pigmented hair at the base of the penis or along labia
hair s3darker, coarser and more curled hair spreading sparsely over junction of pubes
hair s4hair adult in type, no spread to medial surface of the thighs
hair s5adult in type and quanity, with horizontal distribution
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