Data Processing

alkathryn's version from 2016-05-11 20:30


Question Answer
CPUCentral Processing Unit
CPU does:Regulates system operation. Perform computations, interact with memory to execute programs
CUControl unit
ALUarithmetic logic unit
Memory:story of information with ready access
ROMRead Only Memory
RAMRandom Access Memory
DATA StorageStorage space for information while not in use
Input/OutputDevices that allow users to feed information into computer for processing and receive information after it has been processed
Camera InterfaceOutput from the camera is fed into the computer to make an image and store it
ADC Analog to Digital converter
Hardware componentsCPU, ROM, RAM, ADC, Camera Interface, Input/output, Data storage
Software componentsSystem software, Programming language, User Software
System SoftwareOperating systems - creates environment for other software to run in. Controls hardware and user interfaces. Windows, Mac, Linux
Programming languageSoftware that allows users to design more software. C++, Visual Basic, JAVA
User SoftwarePrograms that allow for data manipulation and task performance. Philips Jetstream, Pegasus, Autoquant
Computers in NM used to:Aquire, Display, Analyze, Process data (ADAP)
Big matrix concern:Resolution
Small matrix concern:not resolution, flow
For each photon that reaches the crystal,3 electrical pulses (signals) are produced
Z representsenergy of the photon
Z pulse triggerscomputer that a pair of positron signals is coming
X&Y representthe pair of positron signals (coordinates) of that photon in the matrix
Flow/dynamic matrices64x64, 128x128
Whole body matrices512x512, 1024x1024
As you increase number of pixels,you increase spatial resolution
As you increase number of pixels, you mustincrease total number of counts
Double matrix =Double number of counts
64x64 =200 kcts
128x128 = 400 kcts
Low count studies utilizeByte Mode
High count studies utilizeWord Mode
Byte Mode size8bit
Word Mode size16 bit
Byte Mode imagingDynamic
Word Mode imagingPlanar / Whole Body
Pixel Saturation AKARollover Artifact
Pixel SaturationWhen a pixel is given more counts than it can hold, the counts spill over and not recorded
Pixel Saturation makesQuantitative analysis impossible
3rd dimensionDepth of each pixel
More counts gives youbetter spatial resolution
Zoom doneon smaller organs, to improve resolution
4 Types of AquisitionStatic, Dynamic, List Mode, Gated
How to get better spatial resolutionLonger acquisition time, higher activity, increase total counts
Frame Mode Acquisitions Include:Static, Dynamic, Multi-Gated, Planar Tomographic (SPECT)
Which acquisition we useFrame Mode
List Mode used inResearch, PET, coincidence timing
List Mode allows you to manipulate information
List Mode Includes:Cardiac First-Pass Imaging
Frame mode data is stored asan image
Staticsingle image acquisition
Static can havemultiple energy windows
Dynamicseries of images acquired sequentially
Dynamic may begated, used to cardiac, repetitive
List Mode data storedevent by event
List mode includes ___ within data streamtime stamps
List mode allows forflexible post-acquitsion binning
List mode may result invery large data files
Frame mode requires ___ memory than List modeLess
Frame mode makes imagesimmediately ready for viewing
Frame mode does not requiresorting and placing of XY coordinates
List mode does requiresorting and placing of XY coordinates
___ is lost in Frame modeTime stamps
Each XY requires ____ in List mode1 byte each
List mode is moreflexible, sortable, dividable
In list mode, you maychoose good data and discard bad beats
Static Smoothing FilterSpatial
Static has a presentnumber of counts or time
Static matrix typically128x128 or 256x256
Whole body acquisition is consideredstatic imaging
Spatial smoothing filter forStatic imaging
Spatial smoothing filter does whatreduces noise from the effects of limited count statistics
What type of Spatial Smoothing filter is most commonNine-point
Dynamic smoothing filterTemporal
Dynamic is set for ___, not ____time, counts
Which wave is being monitoredR-R
Multi-garted is of amoving organ (heart)
EKG patchesregulate the framing sequence
Gating dividescounts into frames
Each R wave triggersthe collection of a set of frames
Gated images divided into16 frames within each R-R wave
If a heart rate/R-R interval is 60 bpeach beat will be one second apart
Temporal applies todynamic, gated cardiac, flow studies