DANA Exam 3

aknight1302's version from 2015-10-30 04:25


Question Answer
ACTH is synthesized and secreted by cells in the ____Anterior Pituitary
These monocyte derived glial cells care for sensory and nerve cells in the retinaMueller Cells
Thyroid Follicles contain colloid that contains _____Iodinated Thyroglobulin (not T3 and T4)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone is synthesized and secreted by which cells?Basophils, Pars Distalis, Anterior Pituitary (F of FLAT)
Is a collecting duct part of a nephron?No, nephron ends at Distal Convoluted Tubule
What is the origin of Luteinizing Hormone (LH)Anterior Pituitary, Pars Distalis, Basophils
What is the origin of OxytocinProduced in Hypothalamus, secreted by Posterior Pituitary
What is the origin of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)Anterior Pituitary, Pars Distalis, Basophils
What is the origin of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Releasing Hormone (TRH)Hypothalamus
What is the origin of Somatotropin (GH)Anterior Pituitary, Pars Distalis, Acidophils
The Proximal Convoluted Tubule empties into the ___descending nephron loop
What structure in the neprhon has a prominent brush border made of microvilli?Proximal Convoluted Tubule
What is the physiologic effect of the hormone CALCITONIN?lowers blood calcium by inhibiting bone resorption
Vasopressin (ADH) is secreted into the bloodstream in the ____Posterior pituitary
This portion of a nephron is impermeable to water and allows the urine to become hypotonicLoop of Henle and Ascending Nephron Loop
The Macula Densa is in the wall of the ____Distal Convoluted Tubule
These cells make and secrete reninJuxtaglomerular cells
A hormone released by this endocrine gland results in increased bone resorption by osteoclastsparathyroid gland, the hormone is PTH and released by oxyphil cells
How do lipid soluble hormones initially act on cell?bind to specific receptors in cytosol or nucleus —> regulating transcription of DNA. slower but more powerful. No membrane receptors necessary.
What type of chemical messenger secretion stimulates the cell that releases the chemical?Autocrine
Patient with simple thyroid goiter needs ___Iodine
Chemical messengers that carried via the bloodstream to distant target cellsHormones
What cells monitor the volume of renal filtrate and the osmolarity of the filtrate?Macula Densa cells
What gland secretes serotonin and melatonin, varying with light and dark cycles of the day?Pineal Gland
Erythropoietin is synthesized and released by cells in what organ?Kidney
Which hormones are synthesized by the hypothalamus, but not secreted into blood vessels in the hypothalamus?Oxytocin and ADH
What phagocytic cells reside within the confines of the nephron?Mesangial cells
What do thyroid follicular cells secrete into the colloid?Iodide and Thyroglobulin
The visceral layer of the bowman’s capsule covers the glomerulus and is formed by these cellsPodocytes
What is the epithelial cell type of the lining of the ureter, urinary bladder, and most of the urethra?Transitional Epithelium
Renin acts directly on what molecule in the blood after its release?Angiotensinogen (—> Angiotensin 1)
What molecule activates Angiotensin1 —> Angiotensin 2?ACE
The zone glomerulosa of the adrenal gland producesAldosterone
These cells produce androgen-binding hormone and are necessary for maturation of spermSertoli cells
Systemic Testosterone is produced by which cells?Interstitial cells of Leydig (in male testes)
Which spermatozoon part contains the acrosomal enzyme that will facilitate fertilization of an oocyte?the head
During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, this hormone is secreted by the Theca Interna cells?Progesterone
Where would you find Chromaffin cells?Adrenal Medulla
Ovulation occurs in response to a surge of what hormone?Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
At ovulation, the oocyte is arrested in what cell division phase?metaphase of Meiosis 2
Which ovarian follicles undergo ovulation?secondary (is that all?)
Vasopressin causes the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts to ___reabsorb more water
Insulin is produced bybeta cells in the pancreas
Glucagon is produced byalpha cells in the isles of langerhans pancreas
Progesterone is produced and secreted by these cells ___Corpus Luteum cells, specifically the theca interna of corpus luteum cells
The vagina is normally lined with ____ epitheliumstratified squamous, non-keratinized
Ejaculatory ducts in the male open into the ___Prostatic Urethra (urethra where prostate is)
Leydig Cells are found where?Testes
Oxyphil cells are found where?Parathyroid
C-Cells are found where?Thyroid
Zona Reticularis cells are found where?Adrenal Cortex
Chromaffin cells are found where?Adrenal Medulla
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine secreting cells are found where?Adrenal Medulla
Parafollicular cells are found where?Thyroid, and they secrete calcitonin and are also referred to as C-cells


Question Answer
Thyroid Colloid containsThyroglobulin
Parafollicular cells in the thyroid produceCalcitonin
The Posterior Pituitary secretesOxytocin and Vasopressin (ADH)
What two structures form a renal corpuscle?Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
Special epithelial cells that cover the capillaries of a glomerulusPodocytes
These arteries give rise to afferent arterioles for the glomeruliInterlobular arteries
What portion of a nephron has cuboidal epithelia with an extensive array of microvilli?Proximal Convoluted tubule
In a typical negative feedback mechanism, which one of the following would INHIBIT the release of TRH?high T3 and T4 levels
Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the ___Adrenal Cortex
These cells are associated with the seminiferous tubules of the testes and produce testosteroneInsterstitial cells (of Leydig)
What does the Pineal gland produce?melatonin, seretonin
The corpus luteum in the ovary is important for the production of ___Progesterone
Rathke's pouch gives rise to theAdenohypophyses (anterior pituitary)
What is the embryonic origin of the hypothalamus and posterior pituitarythe diencephalon
The principal source of systemic estrogen in the female is the (organ)ovary
Juxtaglomerular cells are located in the ___afferent arteriole
Juxtaglomerular cells' secretory granules containrenin
Hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary inHerring Bodies
Distal Convoluted Tubule empties into what?collecting duct
Macula Densa is in the epithelial lining of theDistal Convoluted Tubule
These cells are juxtaposed to some capillaries in the glomerulus and lack a basal laminaMesangial cells
What is the epithelial lining of the bladder?Transitional Epithelium
How many smooth muscle layers are there in the Urinary bladder?3
How many smooth muscle layers are there in the urethra?2
How many smooth muscle layers are there in the proximal portion of the ureter?1
How many smooth muscle layers are there in distal 3rd of Ureter?2
Oocyte stops at what cell division phase following ovulation?Metaphase of Meiosis 2
Significant amounts of progesterone are produced and secreted by which cellsCorpus luteum cells
Vagina is lined withstratified squamos, non-keratinized

mnemonics for DANA 3

Question Answer
Thunder makes Guys Go Crazy and Girls Pretty (TGGCGP)(anterior pituitary controlling hormones of hypothalamus) TRH, Growth Releasing Hormone, Gonadotropic releasing, Cortictropic releasing, Growth Inhibiting, Prolactin inhibiting
Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex (GFR,MGS)Glomerulosa, Fasciculata, Reticulata; Mineralcorticoids, Glucocorticoids, Sex hormones
FLAT PEG(Anterior Pituitary Hormones) FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, Endorphinogens, Growth Hormone
All Ceo's America, Get Fat Retirement (ACA, GFR)Aldosterone, Cortisol, Androgens; Glomerulosa, Fasciculata, Reticulata)
Any One That Goes Gru Can Sleep-Poop (AOTGGCSP)ADH, Oxytocin, TRH, Gonadotropic releasing, Growth releasing, Corticotropic releasing, Somatostatin, Prolactin Inhibiting


Question Answer
Howship's Lacuna are associated with what type of cell?Osteocytes
What is the chemical formula of hydroxyapatite?(Ca)10(PO4)6(OH)2
PTH binds to receptors on what cells?OSTEOBLASTS (not osteoclasts)



Question Answer
What structure in the nephron undergoes tubular secretion and CANNOT be influenced by hormones?Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Aldosterone causes what two structures to reabsorb what?Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Duct to become reabsorb Na+, bringing water with it... end effect, reabsorb water and Na+
ADH causes what two renal structures to reabsorb what?Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Duct to reabsorb water BUT NOT sodium, hyper concentrating urine
what cells control glomerular capillary lumen size and lack a basement membrane?Mesangial cells
What is the composition of Glomerular basement membrane?Lamina Lucida (with Fibronectin) and Lamina Densa (with matrix of Heparin Sulfate, negatively charged)
active components of filtration in kidney?tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption
what component of nephron is impermeable to water?ascending loop of henle
what is epithelial lining of the ureter?transitional epithelium


Question Answer
Hormones that travel from the Hypothalamus and are stored are stored in thePosterior Pituitary
Hormones stored in the posterior pituitary are stored inHerring Bodies
What hormones are stored in Herring Bodies?ADH and Oxytocin
The anterior pituitary contains what hormone producing cells?acidophils and basophils
What hormones are produced by the acidophils in anterior pituitary pars distalis?Prolactin, Growth Hormone
What hormones are produced by the Basophils in the anterior pituitary pars distal is?FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
Adrenal Glomerulosa produce _____Aldosterone
Adrenal Fasciculata produceCortisol
Adrenal Reticulata produceAndrogen (sex hormones)
Adrenal Medulla producesepinephrine and norepinephrine
Parathyroid producesPTH
Thyroid producesCalcitonin and T3 and T4 (thyroxins)
Anterior Pituitary produces and secretesFLAT PEG
Posterior Pituitary secretesOxytocin and ADH (vasopressin)
Hypothalamus producesAOTGGCPS
Pineal gland produces/secretesSerotonin and Melatonin
How does PTH stimulate osteoclasts?indirectly; stimulates osteoblasts to release RANKL which stimulates osteoclasts



Question Answer
where are nuclei located on skeletal (striated) muscle cells?on the periphery
What are the layers around muscle fibers?endomysium, perimysium, epimysium
Endomysium, perimyseum, and epimyseum contain ____ and ____collagen and laminin
What is the anatomical and functional unit of a musclesarcomere
thin filaments of skeletal muscle fibers are made ofactin
thick filaments of skeletal muscle fibers are made ofmyosin
The A-band of skeletal muscle is made up ofThick filaments, myosin
The ___ filaments are attached to the Z-linethin, actin
What enzyme in the M-line contributes to rapid ATP production?Creatine Kinase
F-actin is a polymer that is made up of and/or carries what moleculesG-actin, Tropomyosin, troponin
What are the distinguishing characteristics of cardiac muscle?intercalated disks and central nuclei
Myosin molecule is composed of ____ and _____2 heavy chains and 4 light chains of myosin
2 Necessary molecules for muscle contractionCalcium ions and ATP
All the muscle fibers that are controlled by one motor fiber make up one ____ ____Motor Unit
Invaginations of the sarcolema that allow rapid release of Calcium and propagation of the motor action potential are called what?T-tubules
What muscle type cannot regenerate?Cardiac Muscle
What type of muscle cells regenerate via infiltration of Satellite Cells?Skeletal Muscle cells
What type of muscle cells can regenerate by mitosis or by infiltration of PericytesSmooth muscle cells
What is smooth muscle's Ca-binding protein? (not troponin)calmodulin
What happens when Ca2+ binds to troponin?tropomyosin shifts allowing myosin heads bind to actin (cross bridge)


Question Answer
Which layer of ovoid cells produces the precursor for estrogen?the Theca Interna
What is the precursor for estrogen produced by a layer of ovoid cells?Androstenedione
What layer of ovoid cells produce the enzyme that activates the precursor for estrogen?Granulosa cells
What is the enzyme, produced by a layer of ovoid cells, that activates the precursor for estrogen?Aromatase
What is the hormone of ovulation?LH
what is the hormone of follicular growth?FSH
What "gland" is only present in pregnant women?Corpus Luteum (from erupted follicle)
What hormone signal tells the remnant of erupted ovary to continue producing estrogen and progesterone?HCG (sent when fertilized egg adheres to uterine wall)
What is the only muscle layer in the body that develops and regenerates every month?Uterine Myosium
What is the epithelial cell type of the Uterine wall?Simple Columnar
Pathway of sperm?SEVEN UP
What are the nurse cells needed for spermatogensis?sertoli cells
What do Sertoli cells produce?non-circulating testosterone
What cells secrete testosterone into circulation and where are they located?leyding cells, cells btwn seminiferous tubules


Question Answer
what is the cavity between the cornea and the iris?the anterior cavity
what is the cavity between the iris and the lens?the posterior cavity
what is area behind the lens?the vitreous space
what is the outermost layer of the eye (three main layers)sclera (or cornea in tippy tip of the front)
what is the middle layer of the eye (three main layers)Choroid
what is the innermost layer of the eye (three main layers)retina
In the anterior of the eye, the outermost layer changes into what translucent layer?Cornea
In the anterior of the eye, the middle layer transitions into what 3 structures?Iris, Lens, Lens suspensory system
What are the glial cells that care for sensory and nervous cells in the retina?Muller Cells
What is the dense fibrous connective tissue composing the eye socket?Tenon's Capsule
What are the 5 layers of the cornea? (EB SiDE)epithelium, bowman's membrane, stroma, descemet's membrane, endothelium
What attaches the sclera to the cornea and is highly vascularized?limbus
What separates the retina and choroid?Bruch's membrane
What suspends the lens?zonula fibers from ciliary bodies
What do the ciliary processes make?aqueous humor of anterior and posterior chamber
What happens when the ciliary muscle contracts?relaxes fibers, lens more spherical, short focus
What happens when the ciliary muscle relaxes?fibers stretch, lens flattens, long focus
What are the 3 compartments of the lens?capsule, subcapsular epithelium, lens fibers
What type of epithelium is subcapsular epithelium of the lens?simple cuboidal
What pigment do Rods contain?Rhodopsin
What pigment do cones contain?iodopsin