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CVT - Grossman

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luwahofe's version from 2016-10-14 03:02

Section

Question Answer
Les than ___ of patients w/ PAD report the typical symptoms of ___20%, claudication
Primary site of discomfort in PAD patients is?Buttocks, Thigh, Calf, Foot
PAD involving the lower extremities is diagnosed by?screening studies or physical examination
Symptoms of intermittent clodication classically start ___ (in PAD)distally within a muscle group (below the stenosis) & then ascend w/ continued activity
___ ___ that occurs w/ leg elevation is paradoxially relieved by walking may suggest ___ ___Rest pain ; Severe PAD
critical PAD may present as?tissue ulceration & gangrene
Patients can present ___ evaluation of distal pulsesasymptomatic
Measuring the ABI both at ___ & after ____ is very usefulRest ; Exercise
Gradation of arterial pulse? 0 = ?, 1 = ?, 2 = ?, 3 = ?absent, diminished, normal, bounding
What should be used in individulas w/ noncompressible pedal pulses?Toe-brachial index (TBI)
ABI is ___ when resting?Normal
___ ABI may be even more useful than ___ ABI as this will "unmask" PADExercise ; resting
What is useful to diagnose the anatomic location & degree of stenosis of PADduplex ultrasound
What is recommended for routine surveillance after femoral-popliteal or femoral-tibial-pedal bypasduplex ultrasound
MRA of the extremities is useful to diagnose? The anatomic location & degree of stenosis of PAD
___ of the extremites may be considered to diagnose the anatomic location & presence of significant stenosis in patient w/ lower extremity PADeTA
CTA may be considered as a substitue for ___ for these pateients w/ contraindications to MRAMRA
What's the method of choice for identifying PADDigital subtraction Angiography (DSA)
What offeres several distinct advantages over surgical revascularizationEndovascular therapy
The problems & complications associated w/ endovascular intervention are generally related to ___ and ___ accessbleeding & vascular access
Endovascular reconstruction options include the followingPTA, Directional atherectomy laser atherectomy, cutting balloon angioplasty, cryoplasty, stents
Advantages of using percutaneous interventional procedures over bypass surgery includeAvoiding complication of general anesthesia, avoiding surgical incision & subsequent wounding healing complication, early recovery & ambulation, precedure may be repeated more readily than suregery
PTA followed by stenting offers greater advantages of?Larger vessel lumen gain, long-term patency, high procedural success rates & less thromboembolism
Factors associated w/ a poor outcome w/ endovascular therapy includes1) Long area of segment occlusion 2) Multiple & serial stenosis 3) Eccentric calcification of lesion 4) Poor distal vessel run off
Against flow, & contra-lateral approach Retrograde
With flow, Ipsilateral approachAntegrade
This vascular access has high complication rate Antegrade
The ___ artery provides blood flow to the lower extremities and permits access to the Illiac artery, and permits access to the central circulation for coronary artery intervention
Atherosclerosis is common in what intervention femoropoliteal artery intervention
The indication to perform iliac artery intervention includes Vascular access & symptomatic lower extremity ischemia
What can be useful in the femoral, popliteal & tibial arteries as salvage therapy for a suboptimal or failed result from ballon dilation stents
The presence of patient runoff vessel correlates w/ what benefits, reflected in the ___?long term, reflected in the improved out-come in patient w/ milder symptoms
Ballong angioplasty of the infapopliteal vessels is an effective technique forTreating patiens w/ distal atherosclerotic occlusive disease
The traditional indication for infrapopliteal angioplasty has been limb salvage
Location of interventionIlliac artery intervention femoropoplitieal artery below-knee intervention
Access for peripheral vascular access is obtained using a 21-gauge needle and 0.18 inch wire
Vascular access w/ the use of ___ ___ is also safe and effective as this allows direct imaging of the vesselultrasound imaging
What access is useful for mesenteric and renal artery and why? Brachial because there origins have a caudal orientation off the abdomin aorta
for carotid artery lession, what access through common femoral artery allows easy access?Retrograde access. Easy access to the CCA & brachiocephalic trunk that arise from aortic arch
What access permits selective angiography and intervention of the contralateral pelvic or lower extremity vesselRetrograde CFA
What acess allow for easier treatment of ___ lesion located int he arterial tree just at or below the knee?Antegrade, CFA
What access can be useful when trying to cross and occluded SFA (Superficial femoral artery) Retrograde popliteal artery access
Femoral artery access can be ___ or ___ipsilateral or contralateral
___ ___ of contrast is performed w/ these catheters for nonselective angiographypower injection
for nonselective after the insrertion of a sheath, a ___ or other ___ angiographic catheter can be advanced to the level of the ___A pigtail or other flush, can be advanced to the level of mesenteric or renal artery, approximately lumber level L1 at the spine
For non-selective abdominal, use what position for general injectionAP
If a catheter is placed above the ___, then there is a possibility of accidental power injection into the ___ & ___ which can cause?TI2 ; Artery or Adam Kiewics & thoracic artery, which can result in paralysis
PAD is a common manifestation of Atherosclerosis
For non-selective AB angiography ___-___ ___ for interest in real arteries5-30 degrees LAD
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