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Culture

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bohoxadu's version from 2017-10-10 03:48

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Culture ways of thinking, acting, material objects that form a people's way of life; learned beliefs, values norms and material goods. Culture is a way of life. A pattern of living shared by the members of a society.
Source of conformity we are part of it
cultural universals things that all cultures have ex: family system, institution of marriage, incest prohibition, art, dancing, bodily adornment, games, joking, gift giving
Material Culture artifacts, architecture, things we create and assign meaning to
Non-Material CultureThe totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for appropriate behavior& shared by members of society. a) language is how we pass down, communicate (1) doesn't necessarily have to be verbal (2) not what we say but how we say it
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis/Linguistic-Relativityour language influences how we see our world. The language a person uses shapes his or her perception of reality.
Semioticsthe study of signs, how we are meaning, how understand meaning, signs and symbols are what we attach meanings to (1) signified - the idea, actual thing does not have to exist (2) signifier - vehicles of meaning; talking, typing, writing, body language
Signified the idea, actual thing does not have to exist
Signifier vehicles of meaning; talking, typing, writing, body language
Beliefs assertions about the nature of reality (1) how we see the world around us (2) change over time
Valuesshared ideas about what is socially desire, broad guidelines for social living
10 Core American Values (Robin Williams) (1) shared individualism, freedom (2) equality (opportunity, not outcome) (3) achievement and success (competition, character/talent/intelligence) (4) efficiency and practically (straightforward common sense, no flowery language) (5) progress and technology (newer is better) (6) science (7) material confort, consumerism (8) work and leisure (9) democracy and free enterprise (10) racism and group superiority
Norms expectations and rules by which society guides behavior of its members, principles expected to observe, the dos and don't of special life (1) change over time - what was once not ok is now ok
Prospective Norms should not do
Prescriptive Norms should do
Sanction/ Social Controlattempts by society to regulate thought and behavior (punishments or rewards)
What are four types of norms? (1) Folkways (2) Mores (3) Laws (4) Taboos
Folkways normal rules and expectations that guide everyday behavior (etiquette, politeness) - will not face serious consequences if broken
Mores moral significance, sometimes religious, tied to values, protect right and good (10 commandments) - can be punished in different ways depending on the rule
Lawsformal rules enacted and enforced by power of state, codify mores
Taboos prohibitions against behaviors most members of a group consider to be so repugnant they are unthinkable (incest)
1st worldUSA, western europeans countries (well developed countries)
2nd worldcommunist countries
3rd worlddeveloping countries (Africa)
Globalizationincreased interdependence countries have on one another at a global level
Global Villagebc we are all interdependent so if something bad were to happen in a different country then someone else would have to step in bc we are all part of this village
Glocalizationlooks at how people at a local level and how they interact with society - same agency with global level
Grobalization focus on imperialistic decisions to control other lands at global level
How do we see other cultures? we tend to see other cultures as alien and ours as normal (1) different cultures have different markers for adulthood (2) Nacirema = American (a) make fun of American culture (b) Shrine rooms - bathroom (c) medicine men - doctors (d) holy mouth men - dentist
Culture Shock when you have a confusion when encountering a new culture
Ethnocentrism evaluating other cultures based on your cultures standards
Cultural Relativismevaluate a culture based on its own standards, suspend your own cultural beliefs
Relativist Fallacyyou can study another culture and take it within its context but you do not have to agree with it
Assimilation- idea that cultures are absorbed into a single mainstream culture - “Melting pot” (a) fear of losing cultural characteristics
Multiculturalismrespect diversity, promote equality, acknowledge we might have similar central values - salad bowl
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