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Cultivation Theory

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wcollin1's version from 2016-12-11 06:32

Section 1

Question Answer
TheoristGeorge Gerbner
TraditionObjective, socio-psychological
Premiseheavy television users develop a belief that the real-world mimics what they see on Television
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Section 2

Question Answer
Cultivation Theory Assumptions1. Centrality of TV 2. TV ritualistic 3. Cultivation Differential 4. Thematic messages
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Section 3

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Roots of the TheoryGerbner regarded TV as dominant force shaping society Violence is a major staple of the TV world He claimed that heavy television users develop exaggerated belief in a mean and scary world Violence affects viewers beliefs about the world around them It also impacts the feelings connected to those beliefs Three prongs of theory, each concerned with a different type of analysis Cultural indicators project
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Section 4

Question Answer
Prong 1Institutional Process Analysis
Institutional Process AnalysisScholarship that penetrates behind the scenes of media orgs in an effort to understand what policies or practices might be lurking there Involves in-depth interviews Not as common as the other two types of cultivation analysis
Prong 2Message System Analysis
Message System AnalysisScholarship that involves careful, systematic study of TV content Usually employs quantitative analysis as a research method Developed to measure violence Over half of primetime programs contain actual bodily harm or threated violence Weekend children shows average 20 cases an hour 13,000 deaths observed by the time typical TV watcher graduates high school Great inequality as to the age, race, and gender of those on the receiving end of physical force
Prong 3Cultivation Analysis
Cultivation AnalysisResearch designed to support the proposition that those who spend more time watching TV are more likely to see the real world through a TV lens Prong 2 looks at the content of TV, prong 3 looks at how content might affect the viewers Early cultivation studies treated television viewers as uniform Newer work looks at differences by genre differences amongst audience
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Section 5

Question Answer
MainstreamingMainstreaming is the blurring, blending, and bending process by which heavy TV viewers from disparate groups develop a common outlook on the world through constant exposure to the same images and labels on TV.
Resonance ("double dose effect")Resonance occurs when things viewed on television are actually congruent with the actual everyday realities of viewers. Gerbner writes that this provides a double dose of messages that resonate and amplify cultivation.[13] Additionally, Gerbner et al. defines resonance as the combination of everyday reality and television providing a "double dose" that resonates with the individual, which in turn amplifies cultivation.
Mean World SyndromeGerbner et al. developed the Mean World Index. The Mean World Index finds that long-term exposure to television in which violence is frequent cultivates the image of a mean and dangerous world.
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Section 6

Question Answer
Early Cultivation FindingsPositive correlation between TV viewing and fear of criminal victimization
Heavy viewers believe criminal activity is 10 times worse than it really is Higher perceived activity of police
Heavy viewers believe that 5% of society is involved in law enforcement Higher mistrust of people
Mean World Syndrome
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Section 7

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What else is studied besides violence?Health behaviors (smoking, cancer), Gender roles (prevalence, body types), Work/employment depictions (lawyers, doctors), Verbally aggressive behaviors, Environmental concerns, Affluence and materialism
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Section 8

Question Answer
Attitude Change & TVEarly cultivation studies found heavy viewers to be more likely to deem homosexuality "always wrong," Calzo and Ward (2009) observed that heavy viewing of television for both men and religious students, meant significantly more acceptance of homosexuality in real life.
CritiquesOpponents have challenged: The definition of violence The programs selected for content analysis The non-random methods for selecting respondents The statistical method of analyzing data The interpretation of correlational data The outdated nature of the original assumptions regarding TV and the audience
Theoretical AdvancesSecond-order cultivation effects Processes underlying the effect Mental Models Approach, Chronic accessibility, Heuristic processing Moderators of the effect Genre specific analysis Other forms of media beyond TV
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Section 9

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First-order cultivation effectsPercentage estimates (e.g. percentage of a certain profession in workforce) Memory-based and can be learned directly from media content (2007) Often result in a distorted estimation of a particular group or society as a whole (Hestroni 2010) Heavy viewers can more easily recall television examples and they use these examples to form snap judgements about the world (Shrum 2007) Chronic accessibility
Second-order cultivation effectsSpontaneous "online" judgements Typically beliefs, attitudes, and values that can be enhanced by media content Second-order effects are more common, easier to produce, and occur repeatedly in everyday life However, findings suggest that the cultivation effect is more stable for first-order effects
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Section 10

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Moderators of the Cultivation EffectResearchers have studied the influence of a number of factors on the strength of the cultivation effect including: Demographic variables Viewing motivation Personality traits
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Section 11

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Genre EffectsEarly cultivation studies treated viewing as a harmonized activity, ignoring the contexts of viewing and the genre of programming. Cultivation researchers have begun studying more specific content areas in order to combat criticisms Selective exposure Newer cultivation research as focused on genres such as: Reality shows Medical dramas Daytime talk shows Television news Soap operas A few scholars have focused on specific programs Grey's Anatomy perception of doctor's courage and patient satisfaction
Other MediumsFilm , Newspaper, magazines, video games, apps
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