Cultivation, Collection & Processing of Herbal Drugs

allelipraise's version from 2017-09-23 12:39


Question Answer
CultivationProduces improved quality of plants
CultivationHelps in selecting the species, varieties or hybrids that have the desired phytoconstituents
Advantages of CultivationEnsures quality and purity of medicinal plants
Advantages of CultivationCollection of crude drugs from cultivated plants gives a better yield and therapeutic quality
Advantages of CultivationCultivation ensures regular supply of a crude drug
Advantages of CultivationCultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants also leads to industrialization to a greater extent
Advantages of CultivationCultivation permits application of modern technological aspects such as mutation, polyploidy, and hydridization
SoilPhysical (includes water holding capacity), chemical (calcium content), and microbiological (properties of the soil play a crucial role in the growth of plant
SeedsThe seeds used for cultivation should be identified botanically, showing the details of its species, chemotype and origin
Propagation materialThe parent material should meet standard requirement regarding the purity and germination and it should be free from pest and disease in order to guarantee healthy plant growth

Methods of Plant Propagation

Question Answer
Sexual Method/Seed propagationSeeds that are germinated
SeedlingsPlants raised from seeds
ScarcificationPreconditioning of seeds to make them permeable to water and gases


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Gibbereilic Acid (GA3)Promotes germination of some type of dormant seeds and stimulates the seedling growth
ThioureaUsed for those seeds which do not germinate in the dark or at a high temperature
Potassium NitrateFreshly harvested dormant seeds germinate better after being soaked in this solution

Methods of sowing

Question Answer
BroadcastingUsed if seeds are extremely small; needs raking; deeply sown or covered by soil
DibblingSeeds of average size and weight; number of seeds vary (3-5) depending upon the vitality, sex of the plant needed for the purpose and size of the plant
Special treatment to seedsenchance germination: soaking seeds in water

Section 5

Question Answer
Asexual MethodThe vegetative part of a plant(stem/root) placed in a environment that it develops into a new plant
Artificial methods of vegetative propagationMethod by which plantlets or seedlings are produced from vegetative part of the plant by using some technique or process (cutting/layering/grafting)
Aseptic method of micropropagation(tissue-culture)novel method for propagation of medicinal plants
Irrigationessential for any type of cultivation

Types of Irrigation

Question Answer
Hand wateringEconomic and easy to operate
Flood wateringeasy to operate, result in wastage of water
Boom wateringEasy to operate but restricted to utility
Drip irrigationScientific, systematic and easy to operate by costly
Sprinkler irrigationCostly but gives good results


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cloveup to 900
saffronup to 1250
cardamom600 - 1600


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Cinchona60-75 F
Coffee55-70 F
Tea70-90 F
Cardamom50-100 F

Pest and Pest Control

Question Answer
MicrobesIncludes fungi, bacteria and viruses
Disease: Armillaria root rotCalled as oat root fungus
Disease: Armillaria root rotCaused by Armillaria mellea
RhizomorphsDark, root-life structures grow intro the soil after symptoms develop on plant
Powdery MildewCaused by fungi Uncinula necato
Powdery Mildewon leaves it appears as chlorotic spots appear on the upper surface of leaf
Summer bunch rootA disease in which masses of black, brown or gree spores develop on the surface of infected berries causes by a variety of microbes
Red-belted fungusFomitopsis pinicola
Pythium rhizome rotPythium pinosum
Leaf SpotSeptoria digitalis
Little leaf disease Phywpththora cinnamon Rands
Crown gall diseaseagrobacterium tumefaciens
Crown gall diseasegalls may produced on canes, trunks, roots and cordons and may grow to several inches in diameter
Pierce's diseaseXylella fastidiosa
Necrosis of leaves, petioles and stemTobacco mosaic disease/mosaic virus/cucumber mosaic virus

Section 10

Question Answer
Antsthey spoil the soil by making nest and they feed honey dew secreted in plants
Argentine antLinepithema humile
Gray antFormica aerata
Branch and twig borerMelalgus confertus
non-insect pestVertebrate/Invertebrate

Section 11

Question Answer
Weedsreduce growth and yield of plants by competing for water nutrients and sunlight
Weed controlEnhances the establishment of new plants
Weed conrolImproves the growth and yield of established plants
Bermuda grassgrows from seed but it's extensive system of rhizomes and stolons can be spread during cultivation
Dallisgrasscommon prennial weed that can be highly competitive in newly planted plants

Section 12

Question Answer
Collectionthe most important step which comes after cultivation
Collectiondrugs are collected from wild/cultivated plants and task for collection depends upon the collector, wheter he is skilled or unskilled labor
Seasondrug is collected is so important, as the amount and sometimes the nature of the active constituents could be changed throughout the year
Ageplant should be taken into great consideration since the total amount of active constituents produced in the plants
Day or nightcomposition of a number of secondary plant metabolites varies throughout the day and night

Section 13

Question Answer
Barksusually collected in spring season, easy to separate from the wood during this season
Fehlingbark is peeled off after cutting the tree at base
Uprootingthe underground root are dug out and barks are collected from branches and root
Coppicingplant is cut one metre above the ground level and barks are removed

Section 14

Question Answer
Harvestingreflects upon economic aspects of the crude drugs
Selectivityadvantage in that the drugs other than genuine
Dryingconsists of removal of sufficeint moisture content of crude drug to improve its quality and make it resistant to the growth of microorganism

Section 15

Question Answer
Natural dryingsun-drying
Artificial dryingoven/vacuum/spray dryers
Tray dryersdrugs which do not contain volatile oils and are quite stable to heat or which need deactivation of enzymes are dried in tray dryers
Vacuum dryersdrugs sensitive to higher temperature are dried by this process
Spray dryersdrugs which are highly sensitive to atmosphere condition

Section 16

Question Answer
Garblingknown dressing
Garblingprocess is desired when sand, dirt and foreign organic parts of the same plant not constituting drug are required to be removed
Packing of Crude drugsThe morphological and chemical nature of drug, its ultimate use and effects of climaticconditions during transporation and storage should be taken into consideration while packing the drugs
Storage of crude drugspreservation of crude drugs needs sound knowledge of their physical and chemical properties
DocumentationThe producer should maintain its standard operating procedures from prodcution and quality management


Question Answer
Extractsdefined as preparations of crude drugs which contain all the constituents which are soluble in the solvent used in making the extract
Dry extractsall solvent has been removed
Soft extracts and fluid extractsprepared with mixture of water and ethanol as solvent.
Tincturesprepared by extraction of the crude drug with five to ten parts of ethanol of varying concentration, without concentration of the final product
Temperature/pH/Particle size/The movement of the solventThe speed with which this equilibrium is establish depends on?


Question Answer
Infusionmethod in which the plant material is placed in a pot and wetted with cold water. Immediately afterwards, boiling water is poured over and left to stand covered with a lid for about 15 minutes after which the tea is poured off.
Macerationmethod is used frequently for water soluble active constituents. Plant material in cold water (15-20) for several hours.
Percolationmethod where the ground material is subjected to a slow flow of fresh solvent.
DigestionMethod is suitable for hard barks or woods which are difficult for water penetrate. Considered as maceration but at a relatively elevated temperature."As a general rule the temperature of the extracting medium should be in range from 35-40 but not exceeding 50.
DecoctionPlant material is boiled for ten minutes or if boiling water is poured over it and allowed to stand for thirty minutes
Continuous hot extraction methodprocedure is considered as the most common method used for the extraction of organic constituents from fried plant tissue.
Solvent-solvent precipitationExtract dissolved in a suitable solvent, mixed with a less polar but miscible solvent causing the selective ppt. of the less soluble plant constituent.
Liquid-liquid extraction(solvent extraction and partitioning)method to separate compounds based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids usually water and an organic solvent.