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CTF Chapter 18 Westward Expansion

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jikizadi's version from 2017-05-04 14:59

Section 1

Question Answer
Sitting BullA Sioux leader who protested US government demands for the Sioux to sell their reservation land in the Black Hills after gold was found there. After the Battle of Little Bighorn, he fled to Canada with a few of his followers. In 1881, they returned from Canada after running out of food in the winter. He joined most of the Sioux on Standing Rock Reservation in Dakota Territory. After the Ghost Dance spread, reservation police with orders to arrest him killed him in 1890.
GeronimoA Chiricahua Apache who left his reservation with a small band of raiders and avoided capture until 1884, then escaped again the following year. After being caught again, he escaped once more. Then, the US Army sent 5000 soldiers and 500 Apache scouts to capture him and 24 of his followers. Finally, in September of 1886, he surrendered, ending the Apache armed resistance. He and many other Chiricahua Apache were sent by the US government to Florida as prisoners of war.
Crazy HorseA Sioux chief who led a group of Sioux, ambushing and killing 81 cavalry troops in 1866. He also led Sioux forces in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, surrounding Custer and his troops. He was killed in prison in 1877 after surrendering to the US Army.
Sarah WinnemuccaA Paiute Native American who became one of the first Native Americans to call for reforms, doing so in the late 1870s. She gave lectures on the problems of the reservation systems and eventually pleaded her case in Washington, D.C.
George Armstrong CusterA Lieutenant Colonel whose soldiers found gold in the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory in 1874. He commanded the US Army 7th Cavalry and led 264 of his soldiers to "Custer's Last Stand" (the Battle of Little Bighorn), in which he died trying to fight the Sioux.
Nez Percé -- Chief JosephThis Native American tribe was a peaceful tribe, and the US government had promised to let them keep their homelands in northeastern Oregon. After a few years, settlers asked the government to remove them, so the government ordered them to a reservation in what is now Idaho. This chief reluctantly agreed to move, but some angry tribe members killed local settlers, and the tribe fled for fear. In 1877, they were caught and this chief surrendered.
Helen Hunt JacksonA writer who pushed for the reform of the reservation system.
Leland StanfordThe Central Pacific's part owner who praised Chinese immigrant workers but payed them less than white laborers.
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Treaty of Fort LaramieThe first major agreement between the Plains Indians and the US officials. It was signed with northern Plains nations in Wyoming in 1851. It was a treaty negotiated to protect miners and settlers who began crossing the Great Plains. It accepted Native American claims to much of the Great Plains, but also allowed Americans to build forts and roads and to travel across Native American homelands. The US government promised to pay for any damages to Native American lands.
Treaty of Medicine LodgeA treaty made in 1867 when the US government asked southern Plains Indians to move off their lands. Most of these people agreed to live on reservations, but many did not want to give up their hunting grounds.
Dawes General Allotment ActAn act passed by Congress in 1887 that reflected the view that Native Americans would be better off if they adopted the ways of white people. It tried to lessen the traditional influences on Native American society by making land ownership private instead of shared. Reservation lands were divided into 160-acre plots for families and 80 acres for single adults. It also promised citizenship for Native Americans. After breaking up reservation land, the government sold the remaining land, resulting in about two thirds of Native American land being lost. It also did not lead to citizenship. It failed to improve the lives of Native Americans.
Pacific Railway ActsThese were acts passed by the federal government in 1862 and 1864 that gave railroad companies loans and large land grants, which could be sold to pay for construction costs. In exchange, the government asked the railroads to carry US mail and troops at lower rates.
Battle of the Little BighornA battle where Custer and his soldiers met Sioux forces along the Little Bighorn River in Montana. The Sioux forces were led by Crazy forces, and they surrounded Custer and his troops. Newspapers called it "Custer's Last Stand", because Custer died. This battle was the worst defeat the US Army had suffered in the West, and the Sioux's last major victory.
Massacre at Wounded KneeIn 1890, the US Army found a camp of Sioux near Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota, and they faced the Sioux. A shot rang out, and the US troops began firing, killing 150 Native Americans. This was the last major event of over 25 years of war on the Great Plains.
Sand Creek MassacreColorado militia troops attacked Black Kettle's Cheyenne Native American camp on Sand Creek in southeastern Colorado in November 1864. The soldiers killed about 200 men, women, and children. Black Kettle escaped.
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
Long WalkA 300-mile march that the US Army led the Navajo on across the desert to a reservation. This took place in 1864.
reservationsAreas of former Native American homelands to which the US government restricted the Native Americans; the Native Americans were expected to stay on them, which made hunting buffalo (an animal very important to the Native Americans) nearly impossible.
SiouxA northwestern Native American tribe that spread from Minnesota to Montana
Bozeman TrailA trail which ran from Wyoming to Montana that pioneers and miners used to cross the Great Plains. The US Army built forts along the trail to protect the miners. Red Cloud, a Sioux chief, responded to requests for negotiation by saying that once the soldiers moved away and the forts were abandoned, he would talk. This trail was soon closed and its forts abandoned.
Comstock LodeA Nevada place with real wealth of gold and silver named after miner Henry Comstock. This was a bonanza. It produced over $500 million worth of gold and silver over the next 20 years.
boomtownsTowns that were communities that sprang up when a mine opened and disappeared just as quickly when the mine closed down. Most had general stores, saloons, and boardinghouses. However, they were also dangerous places that lacked basic law and order.
The four main uses of the buffalo for Native AmericansFood, shelter, clothing, and tools
Pony ExpressA system of transportation formed to meet the need to send goods and information between the East and West as more Americans began moving to the West. It used a system of messengers on horseback to carry mail between relay stations on a route about 2000 miles long. Telegraph lines soon put it out of business.
transcontinental railroadSome Americans wanted this as a way to improve communication and travel across the United States. It was wanted to connect the East to the West and this want resulted in the Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864.
Ghost DanceA religious movement started by a Paiute Native American named Wovoka. Wovoka predicted the arrival of a paradise for Native Americans. Native Americans who performed the dance believed that it would lead to a new life free from suffering and with the buffalo herds returning and the settlers disappearing. It spread across the Plains, and US officials feared it would lead to a Sioux uprising.
Promontory, UtahThe location where the railroads built by the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific joined to form the transcontinental railroad. They met on May 10th, 1869 at this spot. The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad was very significant because it was a way of travel that connected the East and West for the first time, improving trade, travel, and communication.
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
exterminationthe killing of an entire group
prosperto succeed
paradisea place of great happiness
negotiatedheld discussions in order to reach an agreement
break freeto escape from captivity
gold discoveryIn 1858, a discovery led to conflict between miners and the Cheyenne and Arapaho.
bonanzaA large deposit of precious ore
boomsperiods of rapid growth and large profits
schemesplans, especially ones involving trickery or dishonesty
transcontinentalcrossing a continent
memorize