Critical thinking final

zacliberty's version from 2016-04-27 11:21

Chapter 1

Question Answer
Disjuctive syllogism (Can be valid/sound)A or B, not B, therefore, A
Law of identityP: P if and only if P
Law of Non-contradictionNot both P and not -P
Law of excluded middleP or not -P
A fortioriWith stronger reason
ConjugationP/ Q/ Therefore/ P and Q
AdditionP Therefore P or Q
Hypothetical SyllogismIf P then Q, If Q then R, Therefore, If P then R
Constructive DilemmaP or Q, If P then R, If Q then S, Therefore, R or S
Destructive dilemmaIf P then R, If Q then S, Not R or not S, Therefore, Not P or not Q

Chapter 1 continued

Question Answer
SoundnessArgument has to be valid and all of its premises have to be true
Premisesintend to provide rational support for (and ideally establish the truth of) the conclusion
AssertationTo present some claim as if it were true
ArgumentsSupport assertations
Convergent ArgumentA range of independent grounds for a conclusion are assembled together as premises
Sequential argumentsThe premises establish intermediate conclusions, which in turn act as premises for a further conclusion.
ValidityAn argument is valid if the premises support the conclusion

Chapter 1 continued

Question Answer
Modus Ponenes (valid)In P then Q P Therefore, Q
Modus tollens (Valid)If P then Q Not Q Therefore, not P
Denying the antecedent (invalid)If P then Q Not P Therefore, not Q
Affirming the consequent (Invalid)If P then Q Q Therefore, P
Conjunctions (and)True if both parts are true
Disjunctive Statement (or)True if at least one is true

Chapter 2

Question Answer
Deductively Valid ArgumentThe truth of the premises is sufficient for the truth of the conclusion
Ampliative ArgumentsArguments go beyond what is implied in the premises
Cogencyregardless of validity, how believable is the claim
Inductive reasoningArguing for the future based on the past, premises imply the conlusion
Defeasibilityopen to disproval
AbductionA claim supports alot of what we already know

Chapter 2 continued

Question Answer
Reductio AbsurdumUsing reasoning or arguments in similar cases to disprove them
EnthymemesTechnically invalid as premises are implicit
Enumerative argumentsArguments based on number of previous cases
Confoundsalternate explanation
EfficientThe direct effect leading to some outcome
StructuringConstituting a framework of factors that enables a chain of efficient events to occur at all

Chapter 2 continued

Question Answer
Method of AgreementIf there is a factor (F) in two separate instances, (F) becomes (E)
Method of Difference(F) and (E) are in S1 but not S2, F causes E
Joint method of agreement and disagreementIn a range, E only occurs when F, F causes E
Method of co-variationE fluctuates to the level of F present, E and F are related
Method of ResiduesSet of Fs cause set of Es, subtract F1 and E1 disappears, F1=E1

Chapter 3

Question Answer
Presuppositionshave you stopped beating your wife?
Rhetoricpersuasive speech that doesn't strengthen the argument at hand
sorites paradoxHeap
AmbiguityWhen a statement can be given several interpretations
VaguenessProblems involving drawing boundaries around a concept
The naturalistic fallacyThat is how things are, so this is how things should be

Chapter 3 continued

Question Answer
Controversial implicatureUsing an utterance to convey meaning beyond its literal meaning
Syntactic ambiguityWhen a sentence has a structure that can be read in more than one way
Lexical ambiguity"Bug", device, insect, bothering someone
PolysemyWord with same meaning used in different ways
Homosymysame word with different meanings
Tu Quoque FallacyResponding to moral criticism with moral accusation
False dichotomyinsinuating there are only two options when many more exist
Ad hominemPersonal statement aimed at discrediting the author of an argument

Chapter 4

Ignoratio elenchi = an argument with an irrelavant conclusion
Question Answer
Scope FallaciesThis fallacy misorders a universal quantifier (all, every, each) and an existential quantifier (some, a, the, one)
EquivocationIt is the misleading use of a term with more than one meaning or sense (by glossing over which meaning is intended at a particular time)
Argument from ignoranceWe have no evidence that P, Therefore, Its not the case that P
Vicarious AuthorityEvaluating a claim on the basis of irrelevant facts about its origins
Post Hoc Ergo Propter HocAfter, therefore because
Reasoning from clich├ęsthe exception proves the rule
pseudo-precisionattempting to be too precise

Chapter 4 continued

Law of similarity
Question Answer
Rhinoceros hornused as a remedy for erectile dysfunction
Red HerringStatements or objections that lead the discussion away from the key point
Begging the question, or circular argumentJill said everything was true, therefore jill was telling the truth
Slanting languageAbortion is immoral from conception because a baby has a right to live
Loaded questionsHave you renounced your criminal past?
Division and compositionThe best players may not make the best team, and the best team may not have the best players
Regression fallacyIt ascribes cause where none exists. The flaw is failing to account for natural fluctuations

Chapter 6

Question Answer
Linear Projectioni made 10 dollars in sales today, in two weeks ill make 140
OrdinalFirst second third fourth
Cardicalone two three four
FramingThe effect of how a situation is described on what we believe about it
Evidential neglectdismissing evidence without considering its merit
top-down perceptual biasWhen expectations influence what is perceived
McGurk effectbaba fa fa top down
Self fulfilling prophecyfortune tellers

Chapter 6

Question Answer
HeuristicsProblem solving methods that sacrifice accuracy for speed and simplicity.
Repetition effectthe tendency to believe things that one hears over and over again
Argumentum Ad BaculumBelieve that p or face the consequences
Methodological naturalismsupernatural ideas cannot be proven/disproven by scientific methods
Metaphysical naturalismThere are no supernatural deities
Consiliencethe virtue of success for a theory or method in one domain when it was originally formulated to explain something else


Question Answer
Ownership BiasPay, hire, fire
Competence issuessometimes reporters arent prepared to understand what is being reported
Continued influence effectContinue to be influenced by something that has been disproven
Attentional biasNot paying real attention to the factual evidence

Extra terms

Optimistic self assessment
False Polarization Effect
Fundamental attribution error
Leveling and sharpening
Confirmation bias

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