orlando005's version from 2018-02-12 04:42

Section 1

Question Answer
vicarious victimization the process of sympathetic reaction and empathetic fear of crime
Fearan emotional response of dread or anxiety to crime or symbols that a person associates with crime
Ferraro and LaGrangeconsiders the perceptions of the respondent being tapped and the degree to which the method addresses the individual or others; classification taps
Judgments of riskhow safe the respondent or others are
Valueshow concerned the person is about crime or victimization
Emotionshow much the individual is afraid or worried about becoming a victim
vicarious victimization(knowing someone or hearing about others who have been the victim of a crime
Statutes of Winchesterrequired men to have weapons available for use when called
assize of arms outlined the role of a constable Vigilante movement in the USA mirrored early ideas of "hue and cry
crime preventionintervention in the causes of criminal and disorderly events to reduce the risks of their occurrence and/or the potential seriousness of their consequences
Primary preventionidentifies conditions of the physical and social environment that provide opportunities for or precipitate criminal acts
Secondary preventionengages in early identification of potential offenders and seeks to intervene
Tertiary preventiondeals with actual offenders and involves intervention … in such a fashion that they will not commit further offenses
Tonry and Farrington divide crime prevention into four categories: developmental, community, situational, and criminal justice.
obligatory policingmale citizens were required to band together into groups for the purpose of policing each other
watch and wardrotated the responsibility for keeping watch over the town or area, particularly at night, among the male citizens
hue and crywatcher raised the alarm and call for help
Evaluationrefers to investigating the usefulness of some exercise or phenomenon
impact (outcome). Evaluation focus on what changes (e.g., to the crime rate) occur after the introduction of the policy, intervention, or program; in crime prevention, pose interesting problems; crime prevention initiatives rarely rely on a single intervention or approach;
Process Evaluation consider the implementation of a program or initiative and determine the procedures used to implement a specific program; offer a detailed descriptive account of the program and its implementation; information is pivotal in answering questions about the context of an intervention and what actually took place in the initiative; unfortunately, many evaluations look only at the process
Cost-Benefit Evaluations assess whether the costs of an intervention are justified by the benefits or outcomes that accrue from it; a form of process evaluation requires that an impact evaluation be completed at the same tim
another name for experimental design randomized control trial
incivilityphysical and social factors involved In disorder and community decline
realistic evaluation rather than relying exclusively on experimental approaches, evaluation needs to observe the phenomenon in its entirety
mechanism understanding “what it is about a program which makes it work”; by what process does an intervention impact an outcome measure such as crime or fear of crime?
Contextthe relationship between causal mechanisms and their effects is not fixed, but contingent”

Section 2

Question Answer
Micro-theories are mainly concerned with the etiology or the causes of crime and are based on the assumption that a particular way of characterizing society is best. That characterization is used directly to explain how people become criminals (etiology
Meso theories are social psychological and include differential association
Macro theorieepidemiology or prevalent of crime and are best characterized as those that explain crime via the social structure.
InteractionismReactions of persons and groups to particular behaviors result in some being labeled criminal.
CriticalPower elite define crimes and operate agencies of social control in their own interest, preserving their position in society.
Integration Crime can best be explained by combining two or more theoretical perspectives
internal validity factors that could cause the results other than measures that were implemented
historysomething taking place independent of the experiments causes the change to take place
maturationaging of the study subjects brings about a change independent of the program or stimulus
testingtaking measurements in the study causes change to occur in place or beyond the impact of the stimulus
instrumentationchanges in the study measures or study procedure that take place during the project bring about change
statistical regressionimplementing a project that focuses on subjects that are at an extreme end of measurement will naturally regress to a statistical average score over time
selectionexperimental subjects who are not truly representative of the population of interest will influence the others
MORTALITYthe incidence of a study subjects dropping out during the course of the experiment can bias the results if they are different from those who remain in the project

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