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Crime in America

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orlando005's version from 2017-09-20 05:53

Section 1

Question Answer
What are the three major components of the Criminal Justice System?courts police corrections
In the 1990s, the perception that crime rates were increasing and that offenders were not being punished resulted in an increased focus onIndividual accountability
____________ refers to crime fighting strategies that have been scientifically tested and are based on social research.Evidence-based practice
By returning an indictment, the grand jury has determined thatThere is a probable cause to formally charge the defendant with the crime.
An offender is convicted of multiple crimes and is sentenced for each offense. A __________ sentence permits the offender to serve all sentences at the same time.Concurrent
The _________ model emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders. Crime- control
_______ rights are guaranteed to all members of American society by the U.S. Constitution and are particularly important to criminal defendants facing formal processing by the criminal justice system.Individual
Today we are seeing resurgence of traditional crimes. False
Social ___________ is a condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensusDisorganization
One who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights is a ___________ advocate Public Order
Which stage in the criminal justice process involves taking pictures and fingerprints of a suspect?Booking
____ describes the scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders.Criminology
A crime is a behavior for which there is no legally acceptable justification or cause.True
Which of the following generally does not occur during a preliminary hearing?The defendant is asked to enter a plea.
___ is an ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong.Social Justice
The emphasis on individual rights in the 1960s was associated with a decrease in reported crime False
Which model best assumes that the system’s components work together harmoniously to achieve justice? The Consensus Model
In the late 20th century, public perspectives shifted towards seeing the criminal as a dangerous social predator rather than an unfortunate victim of social and personal circumstance.True
The _________ Amendment to the U.S. Constitution gives every defendant the right to a trial by jury?6th
For which of the following studies would you definitely want to use NIBRS rather than the UCR?A study examining multiple crimes that occur within a single incident.
According to somatotyping, __________ have the greatest likelihood of becoming criminal offendersPredominantly Mesomorphic individuals
____ refer(s) to the relatively stable characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make a person unique, and that influence that person’s behavior.Personality
_____ is defined as the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft.Burglary
A psychological principle that holds that the frequency of any behavior can be increased or decreased through reward, punishment, and association with other stimuli is…Conditioning
Which factor contributed to a dramatic increase in crime in the U.S. in the 1960s and the 1970s?The Baby Boom
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Which agency is responsible for the National Crime Victimization Survey?Bureau of Justice Statistics
Theory testing usually involves the development of a(n) _________ based on what the theory predicts.Hypothesis
Which approach to explaining crime addresses the gender ratio problem? Biosocial
According to the text, what should we expect to see in the near future when we examine crime statistics?The crime rate will continue to decline until it reaches the low crime rate characteristic of the 1950s
All of the following are Part I violent crime offenses except …... Prostitution
Which of the following scholars is considered to be a Classical School criminologist?Cesare Beccaria
Most rapes are committed by…an acquaintance of the victim
A violation of social norms defining appropriate or proper behavior under a particular set of circumstances is known as….Deviance
Which abnormal chromosomal structure is associated with the concept of a “super-male”? XYY
_______ is the unlawful taking or attempted taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property, from the possession or constructive possession of another.Larceny/ Theft
What is atavism?A condition characterized by features thought to be common in earlier stages of evolution.
Which of Eysenck’s personality dimensions was most likely to be closely correlated with criminality?Psychoticism
What is the central defining characteristic of a psychopath?: Lack of empathy
Distinct portions of a cell’s DNA that carry coded instructions for making everything the body needs are known as…Genes
________ is a theory of human behavior, based on the writings of Sigmund Freud, that sees personality as a complex composite of interacting mental entities. Psychoanalysis
A _______ is a set of interrelated propositions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events.Theory
________ is an eighteenth-century approach to crime causation and criminal responsibility that emphasizes free will and reasonable punishments.The Classical School
________ refers to events where social media directs people –often teenagers- to go to retail stores and rob them.Flash robs
The unlawful, unintentional inflicting, or attempted or threatened inflicting, of serious injury upon the person of another is the crime of….Aggravated Assault
The ______ is a traditional measure of investigative effectiveness that compares the number of crimes reported or discovered to the number of crimes solved through arrest or other means. Clearance Rate
Which of the Part I violent crimes is the least common?Murder
A ________ involves killing at least four victims at one location during one event.Mass Murder
If you are looking for national crime statistics and want data on crimes reported to the police, you should use which of the following sources of data? The Uniform Crime Reports
Why is the main reason why the Crime Index is no longer included in the UCR?There are so many larcenies that this crime overshadows more serious index crimes.
memorize

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