Cranial Nerves

juliaterese's version from 2015-04-16 17:53

Development and General Structure of Brain

Question Answer
3 components of the brain stemmidbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
part of brain posterior to brain stemcerebellum
part of the brain superior to brain stemdiencephalon
components of diencephalonthalamus, hypothalamus
folds of the cerebrumgyri
2 hemispheres of the forebrain and largest part of the braincerebrum
why the brain foldsit forms faster than the cranium

Protection Covering of the Brain

Question Answer
type of bone that makes up the craniumcompact and spongy
outer layer of cranial meningesdura mater
2 layers of dura materperiostial, meningeal
extensions of the dura materfalx cerebri, falx cerebelli, tentorium cerebelli
intermediate layer of cranial meningesarachnoid mater
inner layer of cranial meningespia mater
separates 2 hemispheres of the cerebrumfalx cerebri
separates 2 hemispheres of the cerebellumfalx cerebelli
separates cerebellum from cerebrumtentorium cerebelli
is there epidural space around the brain?no

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Question Answer
state CSF contributes tohomeostasis
mechanical protection by CSFabsorbs shock, reduces physical brain injuries
chemical protection by CSFprotects against chemical changes
substances carried in CSFoxygen, glucose, other to nourish neurons and glia
where CSF is formedcoracoid plexus of lateral, third and fourth ventricles
when CSF stops flowing because something is obstructed and causes disabilitieshydrocephalus
circulation of CSFchoroid plexus in lateral ventricle, thru interventricular foramina, third ventricle, aqueduct of midbrain, fourth ventricle, central canal and spinal cord or subarachnoid space

Blood Brain Barrier

Question Answer
what is allowed into the brain via the blood brain barrieroxygen and glucose
why brain infections are seriousproteins and antibiotics cannot cross the blood brain barrier
toxic substances that can cross the blood brain barriercarbon dioxide, anesthetic drugs, alcohol
what forms the blood brain barriertight junctions that close endothelial cells in brain
solubility of substances that can easily cross the blood brain barrierlipid
when blood vessels in the brain rupture (can be fixed)cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
when blood to the brain is blocked by a blood clot and causes paralysistransient ischemic attack (TIA)

Medulla Oblongata

Question Answer
what the medulla oblongata is a continuation ofspinal cord
part of brain stem formed by medulla oblongatainferior
where medulla oblongota begins and endsbegins at foramen magnum and extends to inferior border of pons
cranial nerves in medulla oblongatafirst 5 pairs (8-12)
3 responsibilities of medulla oblongatacardiovascular center, respiratory center, vasomotor
how medulla oblongata is CV centercontrols heartrate and dilation of blood vessels
how medulla is the respiratory centercontrols breathing rhythm
how medulla oblongata is vasomotorreflex center for coughing, sneezing, swollowing
a blow to this part of the head can affect breathing, respiration, certain reflexesback
triangular structures in the anterior medulla oblongata formed by motor tractspyramids
explains why the left side of the brain controls the right and vice versadecussation of pyramids
prominent oval mass on the lateral surface of superior medulla oblongataolives
what olives dosend signals to cerebellum, proprioception
matter in medulla oblongatawhite and gray

Nuclei of the Medulla

Question Answer
nuclei of the medulla that determines heart rate and vasodilationcardiovascular center
nuclei of the medulla that allows for rythmic activity of breathingmedullary rhythmicity area
nuclei of the medulla that controls coughing, sneezing and swallowingvasomotor
nuclei of the medulla that sends impulses to the cerebellumolives
nuclei of the medulla that participates in perception of fine touch and proprioception of lower bodygracile nucleus
nuclei of the medulla that particpates in perception of fine touch and proprioception of upper bodycuneate nucleus
nuclei of the medulla aka Riel's ribbonmedial lemniscus
nuclei of the medulla that is the pathway to the brain stem and sends messages froom cuneate and gracile to thalamusmedial lemniscus

Cranial nerves in the medulla

Question Answer
controls muscles of tongue during speech and swallowinghypoglossal
number of hypoglossalXII
cranial nerve injured in a stroke that may cause tongue to hand out to side or protrudehypoglossal (XII)
mixed cranial nerve that also innervates trapeziusaccessory (XI)
number of accessory nerveXI
2 parts of accessory nervecranial portion, spinal portion
portion of accessory nerve that controls skeletal muscle of throat and soft palatecranial
where cranial part of accessory nerve arises fromthe medulla itself
part of accessory nerve that goes to trapezius and sternocleidomastoidspinal
what spinal portion of accessory nerve arises fromcervical part of spinal cord
cranial nerve that goes to viscera and controls cardiac and smooth muscle therevagus
number of vagus nerveX
cranial nerve that controls secretions of digestive systemvagus (X)
is the vagus nerve mixed?yes
number of glossopharyngealIX
cranial nerve with somatic sensations (taste buds) on tongueglossopharyngeal (IX)
cranial nerve that lifts our throat during swallowingglossopharyngeal (IX)
is the glossopharyngeal nerve mixed?yes
number of vestibularchochlear nerveVII
cranial nerve of the inner earvestibuloarchochlear (VIII)
is the vestibuloarchochlear nerve mixed?no (sensory only)
2 branches of vestibuloarchochlear nervecochlear, vestibular
branch of vestibuloarchochlear that is involved in deafnesscochlear
branch of vestibuloarchochlear that is responsible for balance and coordinationvestibular
term for loss of coordination caused by compromising vestibular branch of vestibuloarchochlearataxia
5 nerves in medullavestibulocochlear, glossopharangeal, vagus, accessory (cranial), hypoglossal


Question Answer
two portions of ponsdorsal and ventral
ventral portion of the ponspontine nuclei
part of the pons important in learning motor skillspontine nuclei
tracts in the ponsascending and descending (sensory and motor)
another name for pontinepneumotaxic
how we can hold our breath under waterpneumotaxic temporarily yields to apneustic
promts your breathing and prompts you to inhaleapneustic area of pons

Cranial Nerves of Pons

Question Answer
4 cranial nerves of the ponsvestibulocochlear, facial, abducens, trigeminal
cranial nerve whose motor portion controls facial muscles, salivary glands, nasal and oral mucusfacial
number of facialVII
cranial nerve whose sensory portion controls anterior 2/3 of tongue and taste buds therefacial (VII)
cranial nerve that runs to lateral rectus muscle of the eyesabducens (VI)
number of abducensVI
cranial nerve whose motor part controls chewingtrigeminal (V)
cranial nerve whose sensory part controls eyes, mandible and maxillatrigeminal (V)
number of trigeminalV
3 sensory branches of trigeminalopthalamic, mandibular, maxillary


Question Answer
posterior part of midbraintectum
reflex centers in midbrain for visual activitiessuperior colliculi
part of midbrain that responds to auditory stimulusinferior colliculi (looking toward a sound you hear)
darkly pigmented accumulation of several nuclei in the midbrainsubstantia nigra
part of midbrain that coordinates cerebellum to muscular movementssubstantia nigra
part of midbrain that coordinates subconscious muscular activitysubstantia nigra
neurotransmitter secreted by substantia nigradopamine
loss of neurons in this part of the midbrain can lead to Parkinsonssubstantia nigra
part of midbrain with lots of blood and ironred nuclei
part of midbrain that coordinates muscular movements by sending info from cortex and cerebellum to musclesred nuclei
number of red nuclei2
part of midbrain that contains axons that conduct nerve impulses from cerebrum to spinal cord, medulla, ponscerebral peduncle

Cranial Nerves in Midbrain

Question Answer
2 cranial nerves in the midbraintrochlear (IV), oculomotor (III)
motor nerve in midbrain that controls eye musclestrochlear
motor nerve in midbrain that goes to 4 extrinsic and 2 intrinsic eye musclesoculomotor
number of trochlear(IV)
number of oculomotor(III)
condition that changes the shape of the lens of your eyecataracts

Reticular Formation

Question Answer
network of small groups of neuronal cell bodies scattered among bundles of axons beginning in medulla and extending through central brain stemreticular formation
matter in reticular formationgray and white
part of reticular formation with many ascending connections to cerebral cortexreticular activating system (RAS)
part of reticular formation that, when stimulated, leads to generalized alertness and arousal from sleepreticular activating system (RAS)
tracts of reticular formationascending and descending
what sensory part of reticular formation causesresponse to alarm clock
what motor part of reticular formation controlsmuscle tone (even at rest)

Cranial Nerves I and II

Question Answer
number of optic nerveII
part of cranial nerve that forms an X shapeoptic chiasm
part of optic nerve in nucleus of thalamusoptic tracts
olfactory nerve numberI
where olfactory nerve arisescribriform plate
why smell is such a strong senseolfactory (I) is only nerve that bypasses thalamus
end of olfactory nerveolfactory bulbs
where olfactory tracts endolfactory bulbs