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Cortex

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medicoblasto's version from 2016-07-28 12:22

Molecular Layers

 

Question Answer
Non specific afferents from intralaminar nucleus of thalamus and brainstem areas.Molecular layer (I)
Receives callosal and association afferents.External granule layer (II)
Association and commissural fibers originate here.External pyramidal layer (III)
Receives afferents from thalamic nucleiInternal granule layer (IV)
Origin of corticospinal, corticobulbar, and corticostriatal fibers.Internal pyramidal layer (V)
Also gives rise to association and commissural fibers; most corticothalamic fibers originate here.Multiform layer (VI)
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Corpus callosum

Question Answer
Dominant hemisphere has_______, so ______ and ______ are on dominant hemisphere only.language; Broca’s and Wernicke’s
Cutting of the corpus callosum to alleviate intractable seizures.Split Brain
Akinetic mutism or tactile agnosia.Anterior (genu)
Alexia without agraphiaPosterior (splenium)
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Aphasias

Question Answer
Loss of ability to comprehend written/spoken language.Receptive (Wernicke’s) Aphasia
Also known as Fluent or Sensory aphasia.Receptive (Wernicke’s) Aphasia
Inability to transform thoughts into words.Expressive (Broca’s) Aphasia
Also known as Motor or Non-Fluent aphasia.Expressive (Broca’s) Aphasia
Lesion of the arcuate fasciculus. Speech comprehension is intact, while speech production is variably affected.Conduction Aphasia
Lack of fluency in speeking, flat speaking.Dysprosity
The area near Broca’s (watershed) is damaged. Patient has great difficulty producing speech, but has no problem repeating.Transcortical motor aphasia
Damage near Wernicke’s area. Naming, reading, comprehension are poor, but speech fluent and grammatical.Transcortical sensory aphasia
Repetition is good. Patient tends to substitute ‘similar’ words often (like pencil for pen, or apple for orange).Transcortical sensory aphasia
Poor comprehension, poor speech production from damage to both Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas.Global aphasia
Most severe aphasia, also known as Mixed Transcortical Aphasia.Global aphasia
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Agnosias (Not knowing)

DescriptionAgnosia
Not recognizing an object visually.Visual
Inability to name or distinguish colors.Color
Inability to recognize an object by touch of either left or right hand.Tactile
Loss of ability to distinguish between stationary and moving objects.Movement
Inability to recognize the presence of disease in one’s self.Anosognosia
Inability to recognize a part of the body.Autotopagnosia
Inability to recognize spatial positioning of body parts.Statognosis
A form of tactile agnosia but in both hands.Astereognosis
Inability to recognize speech, animal sounds, mechanical sounds.Auditory agnosia
Inability to recognize faces.Prosopagnosia
Following a hemispheric lesion, the person is unable to perceive stimuli from the contralateral environment or body.Neglect
Not perceiving one side of the body. Patient is usually indifferent about the ‘missing’ limb.Asomatognosia
A subtype of Asomatognosia in which the patient shows ‘delusional’ misidentification, or confabulation, with regards to the affected limbSomatoparaphrenia
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