Conservation Biology Species (Test 1)

amsykes's version from 2018-02-18 17:23

Section 1

Question Answer
Which type if species occupy different areas (geographical barrier present)?Allopatric Species
Which type of species occupy the same area?Sympatric Species
Which type of species are identical in appearance , but are different in reproductive behavior (cryptic species)?Sibling Species
What is an example of allopatric species?Darwin's Galapagos Finches shared a common ancestor, but through isolation and differentiation in food preferences caused beak mutations over time.
What is an example of sympatric species?Nicaraguan Cichlids underwent a speciation event in a small crater lake. Though they lived in the same place differences in food preference led to speciation without a geographic barrier.
What is an example of a sibling species?Alder and Willow Flycatchers (eastern song birds) display subtle morphological differences, but they can be distinguished by their songs.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is a flagship species? Provide example characteristics. Large, charismatic species that illicit an emotional response, represent an imperiled ecosystem, and whose funding can also be used to help less charismatic critters.
What would an eagle be considered?A flagship species that contributes to the ecosystem, but the ecosystem would still work without them since other scavengers (turkey vultures) persist.
What is an indicator species?An organism whose presence indicates where conservation priorities are needed.
What species types helped determine which watersheds in the southeastern US needed to be preserved/prioritized?Endemic species. Regions with high species diversity are the ones that get funding (eg. mussels, fish, crawfish, freshwater inverts, etc.)
Which paper defined endemics as species with distributions of less than 50,000 km that made a case for mammals and amphibian conservation?Terbough and Winter 1983
What is a keystone species?A species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if it were removed the ecosystem would cause a trophic cascade (net biodiversity loss).
Which study noticed that the presence of Pictigaster sea star alone maintained the the kelp forest?Paine 1966; sea stars kept urchin populations in check, which allowed the kelp forest to grow.

Section 3

Question Answer
Why is an elephant considered a keystone species?Their manure provides soil nutrients, and their bulldozing behaviors prompts habitat creation, which creates habitat heterogeneity.
Which study elevated a sea otter as a keystone species and why?Etes and Palmisana 1974; Sea otters eat sea urchins, and by keeping their populations in check, promote kelp forest growth. Additionally, the sea otters added complexity to the ecosystem through habitat heterogeneity.
How does niche role effect whether or not an organism is considered a keystone species?If an organisms niche space could be taken over by another species, then a trophic cascade would not occur. (ex. hyenas could fill the lions niche should the lion be lost)
What type of "vore" most likely to be a keystone species?Carnivore if there is not much carnivore diversity; Their presence regulates herbivore populations
What type of organism is typically keystone species that directly impact changes in the ecosystem physically?Ecosystem engineers are responsible for the creation, modification, and maintenance of habitats [and microhabitats].
Explain how crayfish are critical to pitcher plant bogs?Without crayfish to excavate and mix the good soil with the poor soil (nutrients), it's possible that the pitcher plants wouldn't be able to persist.

Section 4

Question Answer
What is an umbrella species?A species whose protection results in a disproportionate amount of auxiliary biodiversity protection.
Which four characteristics are caveats affiliated with umbrella species?1. Large range 2. Large species distribution 3. Long-lived 4. Either habitat specialist or habits generalist
What is an example of an umbrella species?Grizzly bear protections help safeguard other species in their habitat. Animals and plants like wolves, bighorn sheep, and whitebark pine trees benefit from efforts to conserve the bears’ food sources and habitats.
What is a surrogate species?Subsets of species which are “representative” of multiple species or aspects of the environment. These include umbrella, focal, keystone, indicator, and flagship species.
What is a literal surrogate species?Ecological equivalent (habitat utilization and predation pressure) with similar life history to endangered species
How is Gauss's law (competitive exclusion) related to literal surrogate species?Two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values; complete competitors cannot coexist in the same niche space 100%
What is an example of how literal surrogate species?C. veterans is endangered; C. chasmodactylus is stable ecological equivalent. Captive breeding of C. chasmodactylus will provide the insight and will allow for the protocol for captive breeding the endangered species for reintroduction in the future.

Section 5

Question Answer
What is a hypothetical surrogate species?Subset of species that are used for comprehensive conservation planning that supports multiple species and habitats within a defined landscape or geographic area.
Why is hypothetical surrogate species considered a catch all term?Semantics matter. The catch all term will allow the whole system to be preserved.
Are habitat generalists or specialists important as hypothetical surrogate species?Habitat specialist such as the koala lives almost entirely on eucalyptus filling a niche that is toxic to most animals. Preservation of koala habitat also helps preserve opossums, platypus, flying foxes, and lyre bird populations that exist in the tropical portions of Australia.

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