Conservation Biology Origins (Test 1)

amsykes's version from 2018-02-17 19:19

Section 1

Question Answer
Multidisciplinary science developed in the late 1970s to deal with loss of biodiversity objectively and subjectively.Conservation Biology
Conservation Biology was born from which science?Ecology
The variety of species, the genetic variation within them, and the spectrum of ecological communities in which they occur.Conservation Ethos | Biological Diversity
Why is it important to conserve biodiversity?Genetics, species, and ecosystem diversity are the foundation of life on earth.
Ecological reasons to conserve biodiversity.Biodiversity sustains vital ecological functions such as photosynthesis, climate regulation, and water purification and storage.
Economical reasons for conserving biodiversity. Biodiversity provides natural resources including food, fuel, fiber, and medicine.
Social reasons for conserving biodiversity. Humans have a social responsibility to present and future generations to maintain ecosystems and associated species we depend on for life.

Section 2

Question Answer
What are the two main objectives of conservation biology?To study human impacts on biological diversity and to prevent extinction.
In many _ _ people are seen as connected physically and spiritually to plant and animals. world religions
Which religions believe wilderness areas and natural settings are valued and protected for their capacity to provide spiritual experiences?Tao, Shinto, Hindu, and Buddhist.
"Conservation in the broadest sense is probably the most important application of ecology."Eugene Odum (forester)
What is conservation easement?Compromise between development and protecting the natural world.
What is an EIS?Environmental Impact Statement

Section 3

Question Answer
When did the conservation movement begin in the US?19th century
Which author wrote literature concerning native american interactions with the land?James Fenimore Cooper
Which author wrote about finding their role in the world and along peace with the world around them?Ralph Waldo Emerson
Which author made parallels between carpenter and harvester ants and human battles?Henry David Thoreau
Which president was considered the "Conservation President"?The 26th President Theodor Roosevelt
Why was Theodor Roosevelt consider the "Conservation President"?He protected 93 million hectares (predominantly in the West) and established numerous reserves, parks, and forests.

Section 4

Question Answer
Which three Americans contributed the philosophies that laid the groundwork for conversation biology?John Muir, Clifford Pinchot, and Aldo Leopold
What what John Muir's conservation ethic?Preservationist ethic=leave it alone
What was Clifford Pinchot's conservation ethic?Resource conservation ethic=sustainable resource extraction
What was Aldo Leopold's conservation ethic?Ecological land ethic=human's are apart of the ecological community; mix of Muir and Pinchot sentiments + ecology
"God's first temple (Forest): How shall we preserve our forest?"John Muir: natural spaces foster spiritual and religious experiences
"Conservation means the wise use of the earth and its resources for the lasting good of men"Clifford Pinchot
"Conservation is a state of harmony between men and land."Aldo Leopold

Section 5

Question Answer
What is an example of sustainable development that meets the needs of people without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs?Selective harvest
What is a super organism?All organisms biologically combined by their interconnectedness
What is Land Ethic?The first anthropcentric conservation philosophy: "A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise."
Why did Conservation Biology evolve?None of the traditional applied disciplines were comprehensive enough to address the threats to biological diversity; Zoology=taxonomy+phylogenies, Ecology= relationships within communities (w/o people), and Genetics: populations
Which two groups are mainly concerned with developing methods to manage a limited group of species for economic and recreations reasons?Wildlife management (hook and bullet species) and forestry
Why have non-game species been given more attention since the 1970s?Nixon's Endangered Species Act: manage for non-game species benefits game species; preserving diversity benefits the whole
What is a flagship species?Large, charismatic species selected to act as an ambassador, icon, or symbol for a defined habitat.

Section 6

Question Answer
What are the two kinds of sciences that make a ConservationBiologist?Soft Science (empathy, observation, description) + hard science (ecology, taxonomy, statistics)
Why is Natural History important?The who, what, when, where, and why aid in the understanding of an organisms reproductive biology, forage preferences, habitat requirements, and behavioral ecology.
What are the three guiding principals of Conservation Biology?1. Evolution is the basic axiom that unites all of biology (Evolutionary Play) 2. The ecological world is dynamic and largely non-equilibrium (Ecological Theatre) 3. Human presence must be included in conservation planning (Humans are a part in a play)
What are the three components of an Environmental Educator, and why are they all necessary?Conservation biology is the middle ground between the hard and soft sciences (humanities) that allow the interdisciplinary approach needed to inspire people to care.
What are the three major areas of emphasis in Natural History?Study habitats, behavior, and interactions of organisms in their natural environment
What is one of the main areas of emphasis in Ecology?Interactions between humans and their environment
What is the main area of emphasis in Wildlife Management?Control and manipulation of wildlife populations to ensure long-term health

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