Conservation Biology Extinction (Test 1)

amsykes's version from 2018-02-16 19:41

Section 1

Question Answer
Roughly how many species have gone extinct through the eons?Tens of millions of species
What is the 6th Great Extinction on our planet?The Age of Man
What are the characteristics of the Anthropocene?Reduction in biodiversity caused by man (e.g. development causing habitat degradation)
What are the two area types that experience higher rates of extinction?Islands and Rainforests
What type of organism is particularly vulnerable in the Age of Man? Invertebrates

Section 2

Question Answer
What is an example of why island populations are more susceptible to higher extinction rates? Islands have a lot of endemics, which make them particularly vulnerable to environmental shifts or species introductions (e.g. Guam and the tree snakes)
Where are the rainforest regions most vulnerable to elevated extinction rates, and what mechanisms more susceptible to animal imperilment ? Africa and Australasia have a tremendous amount of diversity that is vulnerable due to habitat degradation such as fragmentation and land development.
What are the five major causes of extinctions that stem from human activities?Clear cutting, overgrazing, draining wetlands, pollution of aquatic ecosystems, and habitat fragmentation caused by land development.
How does vertical zonation, otherwise known as clear cutting, negatively impact ecosystems?Clear cutting creates heat islands (trees kept the forest floor cool; lack of trees increases the heat of the forest floor), introduces CO2 into the atmosphere, decreases heterogeneity of habitats, and removed the habitat required by arboreal species.
How does over grazing impact the environment?Overgrazing leads to desertification and erosion, cow flatulence is methane which increases the temperature (commercial farming), and runoff changes the water chemistry due to the gut bacteria in cow dung.
How does draining wetlands impact the organisms that live there?The organisms that have evolved to live in water die.

Section 3

Question Answer
What is the definition of extirpation?Localized extinction
What is the definition of extinction?Many localized extirpations; no representatives left in the environment
What are the 3 H's and what is one example for each?Habitat destruction: habitat is no longer there (clearcut forest-> cow pasture), Habitat fragmentation: create disjunct populations by developing through an ecosystem (build an interstate separating forest), and Habitat degradation: decreasing the quality of the environment (selectively logging in a state park->tree of heaven moves in)
Why is the threat to global diversity accelerating? The demands of rapidly increasing human population and continued advances in technology are impacting the environment on a greater scale than any other time in recorded history.
List seven Western technologies that have altered the environment.1. Dams 2. Water pollution 3. Agriculture 4. Over grazing 5. Air Pollution 6. Chemical release into bodies of water 7. Illegal sewage dumping into bodies of water
Scientists now realize that there are many threats to biological diversity that are synergistic. List examples to support the statement. 1. Acid rain caused by factories 2. Stream sedimentation and species reduction caused by logging 3. Hunting predators that kept herbivore numbers in check led to an explosion of herbivores that impact the plant community.

Section 4

Question Answer
Which three mechanisms have kept global populations in check?Disease, War, and High mortality rates
Are the 3 H's a modern phenomenon or a historic occurrence?The 3 H's have occurred throughout human history, but in modern times they occur more frequently and on a larger scale globally.
Which two practices increased the human population prior to the Industrial Revolution? Learning to farm and animal husbandry helped humans become established and increased their food stability.
Which period in history increased human survival across demographics?The Industrial Revolution led to technological advances such as vaccines, electricity, manufacture mass productions, and engines.
How do longer life spans and more people impact the environment in the 21st century?Increased life spans and global populations requires more land and resources (food, water, etc.) to support human life.
Which portion of the world causes the highest number of environmental issues per human?Western societies

Section 5

Question Answer
How can co-evolution negatively impact biodiversity?Some species are locked in forms of symbiosis so intricate that to remove one would cause the extinction of the other (Moths that live in sloth fur; No sloth->no sloth poo=no habitat for moth life cycle)
What does biological diversity consist of?The entire range of species found on earth
What are the four levels of Biodiversity?1. Genetic 2. Species 3. Community 4. Landscape
Discuss the genetic level of biodiversity.Sufficient genetic variation maximizes a species's evolutionary potential because it ensures that a population can adapt to environmental/climatic shifts.
Reduced reproductive vitality, disease susceptibility , and inability to adapt to change are examples of what genetic issue?Genetic bottle neck (e.g. cheetah)
Which level of biodiversity inventories organism diversity?Species level
What is the number of different species in a given habitat, and what does it indicate about the health of the habitat in which they reside?Species richness, or diversity, indicates a healthy ecosystem

Section 6

Question Answer
What is species evenness?The relative abundance of individuals among different species (CPUE among taxa).
What are the three types of species diversity?Alpha, Beta, and Gamma
What is Alpha Species Diversity?The number of species and the abundance of each species on a localized basis
What are two examples of measuring Alpha Species Diversity?Oglebay versus Campus woods wildflower survey; measuring bird diversity following clearcutting
What is Gamma Species Diversity?The number of species over a large area (land) with little or no reference to the abundance of each species
What is an example measuring Gamma Species Diversity?Breeding bird survey, which provide data for State Breeding Bird Atlases

Section 7

Question Answer
What is Beta Species Diversity?Measures the variety of species along an environmental or geographical barrier; the higher the higher the Beta Diversity, the more species present
What kinds of organisms are important to Beta Species Diversity?Endemic species (exist only in a narrow range)
What is the Community Ecosystem level of biodiversity?The variety of habitat types and ecosystems in a given region.
Why is the Community Ecosystem level of Biodiversity the best approach?The preservation or protection on a habitat level aids all the species present instead of a single organism.
What is the Landscape level of biodiversity?The largest scale shy of the biosphere (eg. Monongahela National Forest covers 3 states)
What is the definition of a species?Group of individuals reproductively or genetically isolated from all other groups.

Section 8

Question Answer
Which concept groups species in groups based on geographically natural interbreeding populations that create reproductively viable offspring?Biological Species Concept
Which concept holds that species have their own tendencies and fates Evolutionary Species Concept
What term means that hybrids can reproduce?Hybrid viability
What term means some first-generation hybrids are fertile, but when they mate with another species or with either parent species, offspring of the next generation are feeble or sterile?Hybrid Breakdown
True or False: If enough F1's are produced a hybrid species can persist?True

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