Congestive Heart Failure

benryan95's version from 2015-10-19 17:47

Section 1

Question Answer
What is heart failure?The heart is unable to generate a cardiac output sufficient to meet the demands of the body without increasing diastolic pressure
What is congestive heart failure?Heart failure with breathlnessness and abnormal sodium/water retention resulting in oedema
What are 4 common causes of chronic heart failure?Coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease, myocarditis
What is primary prevention for congestive heart failure?Management of hypertesion, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, ischaemic heart disease
What has recently been used as a screening tool for structural heart disease in the general population?B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
What are common presenting symptoms/signs in congestive heart failure?Dysnpoea, neck vein distension, S3 gallop, cardiomegaly, hepatojugular reflex, rales
What are the 1st tests that should be ordered in congestive heart failure?Transthoracic echo, ECG, CXR, BNP, FBC, electrolytes, creatinine, blood glucose, LFT, thyroid function test, blood lipids
Why is transthoracic echocardiogram indicated in CHF?allows accurate determination of biventricular systolic and diastolic function
Why is CXR indicated in CHF?may show pulmonary vascular congestion, cardiomegaly or pleural effusion
Why is thyroid function test indicated in CHF?screening for hypo or hyperthyroidism, both a primary or contributory cause of heart failure

Section 2

Question Answer
What is 1st line treatment for CHF?Ace inhibitor/ARB + lifestyle changes + beta-blocker (carvedilol)
What else can be used for adjunct treatment in CHF?aldosterone antagonist, isosorbide dinitrate + hydralazine, diuretic (furosemide), digoxin, ivabradine, vasopressin antagonist
What can else can be used for ongoing treatment of CHF?ICD, CRT, bi-ventricular pacemaker, cardiac transplantation
What are the goals of treatment of chronic CHF?Alleviate symptoms, delay progression, reduce mortality
What should patients be instructed on after being diagnosed with CHF?daily home weight monitoring, sodium restriction, tobacco and alcohol discontinuation, control of HNT and diabetes, lipid management, exercise, health care maintenance
What are complications of CHF?Pleural effusion, decompensation of heart failure, acute renal failure, chronic renal insuffiency, anaemia, sudden cardiac death

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