Concise History Of Western Music

gordongunn's version from 2015-11-29 07:03

Concise History of Western Music

Chapter 9 - Early Baroque

Principal GoalMove the affections
Seconda PracticaRules can be broken in interest of text expression
Four forerunners of OperaIntermedi, Pastoral Poem, Greek Tragedy, Florentine Camerata
Italian Opera - 4 characteristicsSolo singing, distinction between recitative and aria, aria types, libretto support music (reversed idea)
ChaconneDance song w/ refrain. Repetitions of simple pattern of guitar chords. Prob. origins South America.
PassacagliaPattern of chords between strophes of song, Evolved in to four-bar bass formula repeated, triple-meter, minor mode, Spain
St. Marks CathedralCenter of Venetian culture with divided choirs
Oratorio - sim. to OperaRecitative, aria, duets, instrumental sections
Oratorio - diff. from OperaSacred subjects, narrators, meditative roles for chorus, lack of staging /acting
Dance SuitePrelude, Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, (Intermezi - Minuet or Gavotte), Gigue
RicercareBrief, serious composition for Organ. Develops one theme continually in imitation, shifting harmony, dissonances - uses chromatic lines
FantasyBorrowed themes, series of figures
CanzonaDirect predecessor of Sonata, several contrasting sections, theme in fugal imitation, ends with cadenza-like flourish. Developed into Sonata da chiesa
Four variation techniquesMelody repetition with little change (cantus firmus), melodic embellishments, repeated bass line as constant, chorale melodies as basis for organ variations

Chapter 10 - Opera and Vocal Music in Late Seventeenth Century


Question Answer
Strophic FormA sectional and/or additive way of structuring a piece based on repetition of one formal section or block played repeatedly AAA or AA'A"
ColoraturaElaborate Ornamentation and embellishment (runs, trills, etc.)
Alessandro Scarlatti1660-1725, Da Capo Aria
Jean-Baptiste Lully1632-1687, French Ouverture
French OuvertureTwo-part movement introduction to ballads, operas, oratorios. 1st Section: homophonic, slow and majestic with dotted rhythms, Second section: faster, fugal imitation. First part sometimes repeats @ end.
Henry PurcellOpera composer in England, 1659-1695
Dido and Aeneas1689, English opera by Purcell. Arias on ground bass
SingspielUse of spoken dialog instead of recitative
Passiona biblical narrative set over the oratorio, narrative of death & suffering of Christ

Chapter 11 - Instrumental Music in the Late Baroque Period


Question Answer
ToccatasSuccession of contrapuntal and free-sections, improvisational style
FugueExp (Theme in tonic, answered in dom., alternate subj. and answer.), Epis (subject does not appear, between statements of subj., modulates), Final statement (in tonic, use of streto or augmentation)
Corelli1653-1713, Concerto
Concerto TypesConcerto Grosso (contrasts concertino with concerto grosso), Solo concerto
Typical concerto instrumentationvln I, II, viola, cello, bass viol) and basso continuo

Chapter 12 - Music in the early-eighteenth century


Question Answer
PietaVivaldi worked there, conservatory for orpahns and illegitimate children
Jean-Phillipe Rameau1683-1764, Treatise on Harmony
Tratise on HarmonyRameau, basic principle: harmony from acoustics, chord primal element in music (based on intervals->based on string intervals), expand triad from 7th chords to 11th chords, chords retain identities in all inversions, each triad functions differently in each key (made modulation possible with pivot chord)
J.S. Bach1685-1750
Bach @ Weimar1708-1717
Bach @ Cothen1717-1723
Bach @ Leipzig1723-1750
Bach's Preludes and FuguesPairing standard for period, technical and idiomatic writing
Goldberg VariationsBMV988, thirty variations on a sarabande, all preserve harmonic structure of the theme. Sarabande in two balanced sections. Every third variation is a canon (first at unison, second at second -> ninth), other variations in other forms, 13 and 19th var -> quodlibet (mixture of two popular song melodies), ended with original theme repeated da capo. includes fr. overture.
English vs. French SuitesAll have allemande, courante, sarabande X and gigue. English open with a prelude.
Brandenburg Concertos3-mov Italian concerts F-S-F
Bach's work @ Leipzigwrote 58 cantatas/yr for church calendar plus others for special occasions (social or church)
Handel1685-1759, oratorio (ment to compose operas)
English Oratorios of HandelDialog in recitative, lyrical verses in aria, combine dramatic forms of Fr., Gr., Ancient Grk., & It., Librettos - O.T. text, Musical symbolism

Chapter 13 - Early Classic Period


Question Answer
Classic Style1720-1800
Musical Characteristics of the Classic StylePhrasing (short, distinct phrases 2-4 m. length, ant. conseq. phrases), Harmony (slower harmonic motion, alberti bass), Music & Rhetoric (contrasts for opposing effects or ideas, musical works like speeches)
Domenico Scarlatti1685-1757
Christopher Willibud Gluck1714-1787
Plege of GluckRid Italian opera of its excesses
Ideal opera of GluckMusic to serve poetry, overture integral part of opera, lessened contrast between recitative and aria
Early symphoniesevolved from Italian opera overture (or sinfonia), ~1730s
Form of early symphoniesAllegro, Lyrical Andante, Finale (dance-like minuet or gigue)
The EnlightenmentHumanitarian & cosmopolitan movement, love of learning, musical ideal shift (universal appeal, noble and entertaining, natural and uncomplicated)
Opera Buffafull-length opera, sung throughout, plots caricatured faults, dialog rapidly delivered recitatives with keyboard
Intermezzoshort comedic musical interludes between acts, plots were comedies sometimes paroding the principal drama
Empfindsam StyleSudden contrasts in mood, Intense personal emotion
Sonata FormExpansion of binary form, Exposition (2 theme groups), Development, recap (coda)
Da Capo AriaRit., A1, Rit., A2., Rit., B (da capo al fine)
Opera SeriaOpera with no comedic scenes
Libretto of Opera Seria2 pairs of lovers subordinate characters, heroic deed or humble renunciation
Recitativedevelopment part of opera, dialog
AriaSoliloquies in which a principle actor reacts to events of previous scene
Alberti BassChords set in repeated patterns to animate simple harmonies without taking away from the melody
GalantEmphases on melody built from repeated small motives organized into short phrases, Simple harmony with freq. cadences

Chapter 14 - Late Eighteenth Century

Question Answer
Sturm und DrangStorm and stress (impulse), German, individual subjectivity, emotions given to free expression, response to confines of rationalism
Franz Haydn1732-1809
London Symphonies12 commissioned symphonies by London, 1790, written to please
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart1756-1791
Mozart in Vienna1781-1791
Ars combinatoriacombination and permutation derived from mathematics for melodic variety

Chapter 15 - Ludwig Van Beethoven

Question Answer
1st Creative period of Beethoven1770-1802
2nd Creative period of Beethoven1802-1815
3rd Creative period of Beethoven1815-1827
Schiller's Ode to JoyUsed in choral symphony, Beethoven's ninth

Chapter 16 - Romanticism and nineteenth-century orchestral music

Question Answer
Romantic Period1770-1900
Ideals of RomanticismInstrumental music, as pure music, should transcend program, emotion, middle-class
Program Musicinstrumental music associated with poetic, descriptive or narrative subject matter
Franz Schubert1797-1828, Austrian, Unfinished symphony, lieder
Hector Berlioz1803-1869, French, Symphony Fantastique
Idee Fixe Obsessive image of the beloved (Symphony Fantastique, Berlioz)
Felix Mendelssohn1809-1847, Ger., Midusmmers Night Dream
Robert Schumann1810-1856, Ger., Piano music and lieder
Franz Liszt1811-1886, Hungarian, Program and keyboard music
Johannes Brahms1853-1897, German, Symphonic
Antonin Dvorak1841-1904, Symphonies, Czech, chamber music

Chapter 17 - Solo, Chamber and Vocal Music in 19th C

Question Answer
Robert Schumann other careerMusic critic, b/c of injured right hand
Revived St. Matthew Passion & thus BachMendelssohn
Fredric Chopin1810-1849, Polish, Piano, Tempo Rubato
True successor of chamber music of BeethovenBrahms
BalladLong romantic adventure, heroic stories with alternating narratives and dialogs

Chapter 18 - Opera, Music Drama

Question Answer
French Opera style of the 1800sParisian Grand Opera
Giacomo Meyerbeer1791-1864, composer of Parisian Grand Opera
3 Types of opera in Fr., 19th CGrand Opera, Comic Opera, Lyric Opera
Georges Bizet1838-1875, Carmen
Giuseppe Verdi1813-1901, Italian Grand Opera
German Opera of 19th centuryfunction of music to serve dramatic expression
Richard WagnerGr., Opera, 1813-1883, Gesamtkunstwerk
Der Ring des NibelungenThe Ring Cycle
LeitmotifWagner, Tristan und Isolde - Musical theme associated with a person, thing, emotion or idea
GesamtkunstwerkPoetry, scenic design, staging, action and music all come together to form a composite artwork

Chapter 19 - European Music from 1870s to WWI

Question Answer
Gustav Mahler1860-1911, Austrian, Song cycles, Symphonies
Richard Strauss1864-1949, Symphonic (tone) Poems, Ger.
NationalismEuropean music trend, 1870s to WWI, Reaction against internationalism of 1700s, Folklore
Modest Mussorgsky1839-1908, Russian, Song Cycles
Rimsky Korsakov1844-1908, Russian, Principles of Orchestration
Sergei Rachmaninoff1873-1943, Russian, Piano
Edvard Grieg1843-1907, Norway
Jean Sibelius1865-1957, Finland
ImpressionismClaude Debussy, Monet, atmosphere color & light, French
Claude Debussy1862-1918, Impressionism, Piano music
Maurice Ravel1875-1937, French, Orchestrator
VerismoPrincipal of Italian opera of this time, realism, portray people in everyday life
Giacomo Puccini1858-1924, Italian, Verismo Operas

Chapter 20 - European Mainstream in the 20th Century

Question Answer
Bela Bartok1881-1945, Hungarian Ethnologist, Concerto for Orchestra
Ethnologistseek out and publish original folk songs
Sergei Prokofiev1891-1953, Russian, Symphonies
Dimitri Shostakovitch1906-1975, Russian, Symphony
Benjamin Britten1913-1976, Opera, English
Neo-Classicism1910s-1960s, Imitation of styles pre-Romantic (Baroque & Classic)
Igor Stravinsky1882-1971, Russian, La Sacre de Printemps

Chapter 21 - Atonality, Serialism

Question Answer
Arnold Schoenberg1874-1951, German, Serialist
SprechstimmeApproximation of pitches, expressionistic
Dodecaphonic12-tone composition
Principals of 12-tone composition12-tones arranged in a row, used in melody, harmony and counterpoint. transp. inv. or retro rows
Alan Berg1885-1935, Tone rows w/ vestige of tonality, Austrian
Anton Webern1883-1945, Pointillism, Austrian
Olivier Messiaen1908-1992, Religious, Paris Conservatory