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CONCEPTS AND MEMORY EXAM

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mitchell345's version from 2015-11-04 01:02

Section

Question Answer
Concept problembasically says humans will choose item that is best summary of all other items. should be given with images of circles and triangles of different sizes and colors
What is a concept?mental representation of sets of entities
difference between ideal and nonideal prototypeIdea prototype will not already be in the set!
what are concepts good for?1. indentifying 2. simplifying 3. classifying 4. storing efficiently 5. communicating efficiently
what is an exemplar?memory trace. we make judgements by comparing new stimuli with instances already stored in memory
when does concepts as rules fail?everyday concepts can not be defined in terms of sufficient and necessary conditions...... failure of data
what is the base of spoken language?phonetics
Tajfel and wilkes experiement found?impositon of categories directly affected judgement. Lines were initially presented as two groups of lines of different sizes. once groups were presented (A and B) things became much more alike within the group!
iconic memory?sensory memory....most transient form.. is gone in seconds
STM or Working memory
recency and primacy affect (where it appears on a list)people tend to remember the first few words (P) and the last few(R)
Miller (1959) CHUNKINGchunk is a group of meaningful info.. we have ability to chunk 7+/-2
Conrad Acoustic Encoding ..... MST? 1. MRS 2.MRVMRV!
Wickens (1972) and encoding?we have ability to ENCODE SEMANTICALLY. memorizing new items from new category remain extinct untils items from distinct new category are introduced
Working memory model (braddely and hitch)I. phonological loop (acoustic) aka constantly repeating II. Visospaital sketchpad (maintaining by visualizing) ........ FInally, CENTRAL EXECUTIVE CONTROL (Coordinates the two)
collins ad quilian (1965) semantic memory modelmemories stored as concepts in HIERARCHIAL fashion.... fueled by distance and that we build on concepts
example of semantic memory modelthings.......humans and nonhumans..... bird is nonhuman bird is an animal bluejay is bird
memory for specific events?EPSODIC MEMORY
memory for how to do things?PROCEDURAL
spacing best fit for learning shown by Bahricsx456 days SPACING EFFECT
retrograde amnesiainability to form NEW memories
Peterson and Peterson 1959STM is very short when REHERSAL is prevented. study showed the STM is different from LTM in terms of duration
DIvers StudiyWE ARE BETTER AT RECALLING IF WE STUDY IN SAME ENVIRONMENT AS WHICH WE LEARN
state dependant recallbetter at recall if in same state (drunk, good mood, etc)
what are the components of working memory system?STM + manipulation (maybe by phonological loop and visiospatial sketchpaf)
Generative grammer type of grammar that describes a language in terms of a set of logical rules formulated so as to be capable of generating the infinite number of possible sentences of that language and providing them with the correct structural description.
Spatial neglect
Construct of savings and relearning (recall)once learned something it is saved and you can possibly relearn very quickly... goes along with idea that we never really forget
memorize

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