Concepts and Definitions in Applied Linguistics

jazzhoyt's version from 2016-04-29 10:45


Question Answer
Linguistics The study of language
Intake That part of input which the learner accommodates to or utilises as part of the process of internalising new language
Status planning This is one aspect of language planning that refers to the modifications in the social role of a language, in particular the role with respect to the state/government.
Focus on formFocus on form is an approach to language education in which learners are made aware of the grammatical form of language features that they are already able to use communicatively
Constative Pertaining to an utterance relaying information and likely to be regarded as true or false. A speech act or sentence that is a statement declaring something to be the case.
Three part exchange A pattern of ABA speech between two people with a natural relationship. E.g question/answer/feedback
Collocation A sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. E.g a word or phrase often used with another word or phrase, words that go together.
Discourse Written or spoken communication or debate
ComprehensibilityCapable of being comprehended or understood.
FluencyThe ability to speak a foreign language fluently/easily/accurately.
Cognitive Of or relating to cognition. Concerned with the actor process of knowing, perceiving etc..
Genre In linguistics, genres are types of spoken and written discourse recognised by a community. E.g lectures, convos, speeches, notices, advertisements, novels, diaries, recipes etc
BilingualismThe ability to speak two languages
Digital natives Referring to the younger generation who are digitally native, as they are all native speakers of the digital language of computers, phones, internet etc
Collation The act or an example of collating - to put anything into the proper sequence.
AnxietyA feeling of worry, nervousness or unease about something with an uncertain outcome. In linguistics, it's the lack of confidence in the mind of a speaker surrounding the use of their own language.
Applied linguistics Branch of linguistics concerned with the practical applications of language studies. E.g language teaching
Politeness The practical application of good manners or etiquette. It's a culturally defined phenomenon. Showing good manners towards others.
Interlanguage A language or form of language having features of two others, typically produced by a foreign learner. An L2 learner that hasn't yet reached proficiency and preserves features of the L1 language.
Sequencing A sequence is a unit of convo that consists of two or more adjacent and functionally related terms. Taking turns to speak.
Linear progression A linear process/development is one in which something changes or progresses straight from one stage to another and has a starting and ending point.
Cyclical progression A progress that goes in cycles and occurs in a repeating pattern.
CurriculumThe subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college. The lessons and academic content taught in a school in a course/program.
SyllabusThe subjects in a course of study or teaching.
Competence The ability to do something successfully or efficiently.
Context The circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, idea and in terms of which it can be fully understood.
ContrastA difference between two linguistic terms which can be exploited systematically.
DiachronicRefers to language viewed overtime and contrasts with synchronic which refers to a specific point in time.
Extralinguistic Any phenomenon which lies outside of language.
Figurative Any use of a word in a non-literal sense.
Generative A reference to a type of linguistic analysis which relies heavily on the formation of rules for the exhaustive description of the sentences of a language.
Idealisation A situation where the linguist chooses to ignore details of the language use for reasons of greater generalisation.
Lay speaker An individual who does not possess linguistic training and who is largely unaware of language structure.
Utterance A segment of speech or a turn.
Fillers Words used to fill a gap.
Hedges Words used to soften or play down what's being said.
Discourse markersWords or phrases that are used to signal a shift in topic.
Adjacency pair A pair of utterances spoken by different people which have a natural relationship. E.g question/answer and greeting/greeting
Interruption An utterance at the same time as someone else is speaking with the intention of stealing the turn or changing the topic.
OverlapAn utterance at the same time as someone else is speaking but without breaking their speech.
Support/backchannelUtterances which encourage the speaker to keep talking by indicating listening or interest.
Tag/tailExtra word or phrase at the end of turn, sometimes repeating info already established
Tag questionExtra question tagged after a declarative statement where the verb is the same or a dummy auxiliary.
Repair An alteration that is suggested or made by a speaker, addressee or audience in order to correct or clarify a previous conversational contribution.
Recycling The redeployment of linguistic material from prior utterances during a conversation.
Language learningA conscious and reflective process. Using formal instruction and grammar.
Language acquisitionThe automatic, unconscious development of knowledge and ability. It is a subconscious process that involves meaningful interaction and communicative acts.
Language planningIt is a deliberate effort to influence the function, structure or acquisition of languages or language variety within a speech community. Often associated with gov planning. Goals of language planning differ but often include making planning decisions and possibly changes for benefit of communication.