Common Medical Terminology

hunter107's version from 2017-07-30 21:14

Section 1

Question Answer
cyanosisbluish discoloration of the skin or mucus membranes due to deficits oxygenation of the blood
pallordeficiency of color especially of the face (palness)
jaundice yellow discoloration caused by increase bilirubin
diaphoresisexcessive sweating
abscessa localized collection of pus surrounded by an inflamed area
ecchymosisthe appearance of a bruise, a purplish patch caused by hemorrhaging under skin or mucous membranes

Section 2

Question Answer
abrasionsuperficial scraping of the surface of the skin (less severe than a laceration)
avulsiontearing away
contusionbruise or injury to an area without a tear in the skin
lacerationirregular cut. tear of the skin
punctureinjury caused by sharp, narrow objects cutting the skin

Section 3

Question Answer
corneatransparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil
conjunctivaepaper thin covering to the exposed portion of the white part of the eye
sclerathe white of the eye
EMOIextraocular movements intact- normal finding
PERRLpupils equal, round, and reactive to light- normal finding
Scleral icterusjaundice/ yellowing of the sclera
Photophobiaintolerance to light

Section 4

Question Answer
tympanic membrane (TM)the eardrum

Section 5

Question Answer
naresthe nostrils
rhinorrheadischarge from the nose
septumthe cartilage and skin that separates the two nostrils

Section 6

Question Answer
buccal mucosamucus membrane lining of the inner cheek
dentition intactrefers to normal arrangement of teeth in the dental arch
palateroof of mouth
uvulasmall structure hanging down from the soft palate into the throat; helps close the nose from the mouth during speech
tonsilslymphoid tissue located in the back of the mouth
airwayrespiratory tract
patent open, no obstruction
stridorharsh sound heard o inhalation associated with inflammation or narrowing of the larynx or trachea
larynxvoice box
esophagussealing tube made of muscle that connects the throat with the stomach

Section 7

Question Answer
lymphadenopathyswelling of the lymph nodes; commonly associated with infection
tracheawindpipe, tube passing from the larynx to bronchi

Section 8

Question Answer
auscultationto listen with a stethoscope
rales (crackles)abnormal sound caused by fluid in the lungs (common in CHF and pneumonia)
rhonchiabnormal sound caused by fluid in the large airways (common in bronchitis)
wheezehigh pithed whistling caused by fluid in the large airways (asthma, allergic reaction, and COPD)
upper airway soundssounds heard when auscultating the lungs that actually originate from the upper airway (striding)

Section 9

Question Answer
alveolithinned walled chambers within the lungs where oxygenation dioxide exchange takes place
bronchiairways of the lungs
bronchiolesthe final generation of the airways before the alveoli are reached
diaphragmmuscular structure that separates the thoracic area from abdominal contents
epiglottisa small flap-like valve of cartilage that closes over the voice box (larynx) during swallowing so that food goes down the esophagus and not into the lungs
dyspneadifficult or labored breathing

Section 10

Question Answer
tachycardia> 100 BPM
bradycardia< 60 BPM
regular rhythmevenly spaced beats, may vary slightly with inspiration
arrhythmiaabnormal heart rhythm
normal heart soundslub dub; S1, S2
murmurabnormal heart sound, may indicate valve abnormality, graded on scale of 1-6 (2/6 systolic murmur)
congestive heart failure CHFcondition in which the heart fails to adequately pump blood
myocardial infarction MIheart attack
Coronary artery bypass graft CABGan artery is taken from the patient's inguinal area to serve as a shunt that permits blood to travel around an obstruction in the coronary artery
hypertensionhigh bp
ischemiadecreased tissue perfusion
infarctarea of dead tissue due to a decrease in tissue perfusion

Section 11

Question Answer
distentionan inflated abdomen
incontinence (bowel)loss of bowel control
RUQgalbladder, liver
RLQappendix, small intestine, large intestine, ovary
LUQspleen, pancreas
LLQsmall intestine, large intestine, ovary
suprapubicurinary bladder

Section 12

Question Answer
dysuriapainful urination
hematuriablood in the urine
polyuriaexcessive urination

Section 13

Question Answer
hyperglycemiahigh blood sugar
hypogylcemialow blood sugar
diabetes mellitus DMa life-long disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood

Section 14

Question Answer
DTRsdeep tendon reflexes (0-5, 2+ is normal)
gaitpattern of walking
paresthesiasubjective sensations experiences as numbness, tingling, or pins & needles
dysphasiadifficulty with speech
dysphagiadifficulty swallowing
syncopeloss of consciousness, to pass out, to faint
cervical7 vertebrae of the neck c-spine
thoracic12 vertebrae of the thorax, ribs are attached T-spine
lumbar5 vertebrae of the lower back L-spine
sacral and coccygealinferior to the L-spine, fused vertebrae, part of the sacrum and coccyx

Section 15

Question Answer
Upper Extremitieshumerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
Lower Extremities femur, patella, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, phalanges
humerusupper arm bone
radiuslateral arm bone
ulnamedial forearm bone
carpalswrist bones
metacarpalshand bones
phalangesfinger bones
femurupper leg bone
tibiamedial lower leg bone
medial malleolusprocess at the distal end of the tibia
fibulalateral lower leg bone
lateral malleolusprocess at the distal end of the fibula
tarsalsankle bones
metatarsalsfoot bones
edemaswelling caused by excess fluid accumulation (graded as- 1+, 2+, 3+ or pitting)