Comlex Biostat

ruhland1's version from 2015-09-29 15:37

Section 1

Question Answer
case control"what happened" retrospective
case control findsodds ratio
cohort study findsrelative risk (case control finds Oddsratio)
cross sectional findsprevalence (does not establish causality)
best studymeta-anal
clinical trialcompares 2 treatments or 1 tx and control
Phase 1healthy volunteer
measures toxphase 1
measures pharmicokineticsphase 1
phase2small numbered dz'd patient
determines efficacy/dosingPhase2
determines adversePhase 2
compare to goldphase 3
detect longterm/rarephase 4

Section 2

Question Answer
prevalence>incidencechronic diseases
odds ratio def(odds of getting dz in exposed group divided by odds for getting dz in unexposed
relative ratio def(%dz ex)/(%dz non exp)
finds odds ratiocase control
finds relative riskcohort
precision reduced byrandom error
accuracy reduced bysystemic error
NNH=1/attrib risk
NNT=1/abs risk red
selection biasnonrandom group assign
berksonbias=selection bias
bias of studying a fatal dzlate-look bias (your exposed group is disproportionatley small)
procedurebiasgroups not tx'd same
early detection biasnew screen early detection means proprtionally more alive so false up survival
leadtime bias=early detection bias
up leadtime with?earlier detection
increased leadtime causesup ppl confirmed w/ dz, up survival bias b/c you are more likely to find ppl further in disease (but more have died)
want own drug to workpygmalion
mean>median>modepositive skew
unaffected by outliermode
no assoc b/t dz and measured risk factornull Hypothesis
stating true hypothesis when infact hyp is null (no actual risk to dz correlation)Type 1 error (false positive-error)
Type 2 errorstating hypothesis is null when in fact is true (false-negative error)

Section 3

Question Answer
power 1-beta=
Power logic(true positive finding ability or true negative finding ability)
ability to reject hyp and is actiullay nullpower (True Negtive finding abiltiy)
ability to confirm hyp when actually truepower (true positive finding ability)
mean standard of ( + - ) errorSD/sqrt(n)
SD=average differance btw data compared to mean
50= mean, data= 90, 20, 40 what is SD(90-50)+(50-20)+(40-20)=90-> 90/n->n=3-> SD=30
n=3 SD=30 find standard mean of error30/sqrt(3)= +/- 17.542354 meaning if a data point is 20 therefore also saying it is 3 or 37 can also be true.
Chi squarediff b/t proportions of catergorical outcomes (compares bell curve from 1 study to a 2nd study of same hyp)
diff b/t 2 groupsT-test
ANOVAdiff b/t 3 or more group
r^2coeff of determination(correlation)
r= -1completely inverse proportionally correlated variable, but r^2=1 meaning pure correlation, though inversely so
r=1completely proportionally correlated variables. EX: If r=.5 -> r^2=0.25 that is their correlatibility

Section 4

Question Answer
primary dz preventvax
2ndary dz preventscreen
3rd dz preventiontreatment
dm prevention testseye,foot,urine
fixed payment for time periodcapitation
HMOs payfixed salary
Medicare Ain-patient (hospital bills)
Medicare Bout-pt (doctor bills) NOTE: C=A+B, D=Drugs
CHIPmatching state and federal child healthcare
3rd party payerinsurance raises rates of entire customer base to pay for current patient
4 Dduty,dereliction,damage,direct
proves Malpracticepts damages was directly due to physicians dereliction of duty
how to increase medication compliancewritten instruct
under 17 and wants abortion non-parental consent (exceptions to allow)emergency, STD, pregnant and currently dz'ed, drug addict
apologize rememberavoid giving patient reason for why your apologizing
parents and child illnessparents determine disclosure to child
when is getting an referral fee from study apropriatewhen patient may benefit
complications of low birth weight(x<2.5Kg) nrds,inf,necrotizing enterocolitis(via hypox), intraventric hemm, persistehnt fetal circ

Section 5

Question Answer
0 morooting
3 momoro disappears, hold head up
9mocrawl, stranger anxi
15 mobabinski gone, walks
3blocks1 year
6 blocks2 year
object permanence1 year
2 year200 words
2 word sentences2 year
9 blocks3 year
toilet training3 year
gender ident2 year
side by side parallell play2 year
tricycle3 year
draw circle3 year
3 year900 words
complete sentence3year
stickfigure4 year
hop 1 foot4 year
coop play4 year
imaginary friend4 year
cooperative play4 year
grooms self, brush teeth, buttons, zips4year

Section 6

Question Answer
sensorimotor stage0-2 yo (5 sense, use tool, object permance)
preoperationalage 2-7
magical thinking (illogical)preoperational (couldn't properly function(operate) with these thoughts)
concrete operationalage 7-12
black and white logicconcrete operational stage (GF is like this too much.....)
age 7-12no longer egocentric
formal12+ abstract reason
Tanner 1child
Tanner 2adrenache,
adrenarchepubic hair
stage breast bud (not same as raised areola)Tanner2
Tanner 3pubic hair darkens
up penis lengthtanner 3
Tanner 4up penis width
raised areolatanner 4
tanner 5areola no longer raised

Section 7

Question Answer
up sleep latency, down REMup age (latency= time from closing eyes to asleep)
dn incidenc psych d/oup age (if ya gonna get it you shouldve already had it)
highest suicide ratemale 65-74
grief length2 mo
pathos grief(delayed,inhibited,denied) excessive/prolonged
depression and diabetes have in commonfloppy weiner (no erect)
hoffmans floppy weinerwerdnig H floppy baby
45% of sleep in this stageNREM2
chew teeth (bruxism)NREM2
sleep walkNREM 3/4
pee pee in sleepNREM 3/4
initiating sleepserotonin raphe nuc
up PPRF in REM meansup extra occular muscle acitivity
PPRF=paramedian pontine reticular formation (EOM activity in REM)
wakefullness regrectiular activating system
desynchronized EEGREM sleep having Awake-normal-type B-wave pattern
synchronized EEGREM sleep having REM-normal-type B-waves
why use benzo for night terror/sleepwalkshortens NREM 4
impramine indictx's pissing in bed b/c dn NREM4
principal NT for REMAch
Nucleus of Ach productionbasal nucleus of Meynert (dn Ach * dn dream) why demented lack dreams
cataplexystrong emotions triggers sleep (narcolepsy)
narcolepsy goats showcataplexy
light regulates circadian rhythm controled bysuprachiasmatic nucleus