Cold war section 3

sumayya1's version from 2016-06-05 18:42


Question Answer
detente 1967-68outer space treaty- no nuclear weapons outer space by either superheroes. nuclear nonproliferation treaty- neither superheroes will give nuclear weapons to other countries
SALT1 1972to limit the nuclear capability. both agreed to more production of short range missiles. submarines with nuclear weapon will nly be used when intercontinental missiles become obsolete. this showed detente created environment where two sides cooperates
helinksy conference 1975stabilized situation in europe by ussr and US agreeing to cooperate. they worked with their allies in term of trading and fighting terrorism. this all limited super power conflict, creating stable relationship
apollo soyuz mission 1975joint mission of ussr and US where both their spacecraft where docked high above the ground. in 1960 here was competition race to their moon. this apollo soyuz mission marked cooperation in space
kabul revolution 1978brezhnev saw communist revolution in afghanistan as opportunity to extend this power. new gov in kabul determined to build socialism -the leader tariq became ally with ussr. this suffered rivals and arguments because muslims angered by socialism. this led to civil war so tariq appointed amin as prime minister. 1979 amin supporters assassinated tariq
soviet invasion 1979 reasonsussr didnt trust amin accused him of being a US spy. ussr feared after civil war afghanistan will become a islamic state(non communist). karmal a communist said he could form a new gov but nedded soveit help. brezhnev believed US would tolerate it like they did for prague spring.
carter doctrine - response to the soviet invasionbrezhnev thought US would do nothing, when actually carter was appalled. his response was carter doctrine; -wouldnt allow ussr to take control in middle east oil rich. -wanted soviet troops out of afghanistan.
what carter did to help afghanistan -formed alliance with china and isreal to support afghan rebels(who opposed communism and the invasion) and funded for the mujahedeen. -imposed economic sanctions(stopping trade with soviet union). -ended diplomatic relationship with soviet union
end of detente-withdrew support of SALT2 treaty which wouldve reduced nuclear warheads to 2250. -carter led boycott of 1980 moscow olympics. 60 countries followed him in protest of invasion. -they made alternative game called 'olympic boycott'. -1984 LA olympics ussr and 14 communist countries did not attend and created alternative 'friendship game'. -1980 detente was dead
1979-85 president reagan didnt want to mend detente but wanted to win cold war. people doubted reagans skills because he starred in low budget films where he played a cowboy with no intellect of politics. he believed detente made US weak and ussr stronger so he rejected cooperation with ussr.
^1983 evil speech reagan anounced his views in evil empire speech. he was a devout christianhe said cold war a was a fight between good and and evil, US fought with gods blessing. US had a moral duty to invest in more nuclear weapons and defend liberty of 'evil' soviet union
SDI star wars reagan proposes nuclear umbrella stopping soviet bombs reaching US- launch satellite with lasers which disrupted ussr missiles in space. this would force ussr to disarm their weapons. SDI broke the outer space treaty of 1967.
soviet response to SDIussr couldnt compete with star wars because:- US won race to moon in 1969)even developed new gen of space crafts). -soviet economy couldnt afford consumer goods, military conventions and space weapons. -ussr behind in the computer tech. they didnt believ in computers could be used to leak information and undermine communism. because of these reasons ussr could no longer compete in arms race.
gorbachev 1985-91very little foreign policy experience. he dissed reagan called him mentaly retarded. his relationship with west was tested through chernobyl crisis where he denied leakage of harmful gases. this became an international symbol of crisis of soviet communism
gorbachevs new planpeople lost faith in communism/parties, and russia suffered day to day basis unlike usa. so gorbchev bought about perestroika- economically efficient and glasnost- relaxed censorship of press
geneva 1985first summit. reagan wanted peace, gorbachev wanted reagan to drop SDI. gorbachev waned a working relationship so before meeting he replaces foreign minister with shevardnadze to show end of aggressive foreign policy.
reykjavik 1986second summit. reagan told gorbachev to scrap ballistic nuclear missiles, he said no so reagan didnt drop SDI.
INF treaty 1987treaty of reducing nuclear weapons. significant because:- it went much further than SALT1 in reducing missiles
why did gobachev sign the INF treatynuclear weapons were highly expensive. reagan persuaded gorbachev that US wont invade ussr. soviet economy would never recover from spending on nuclear weapons. disarmament leads to popularity in west. political and economical measures more effective- guaranteeing security
gorbachevs attitude to eastern europe1988 announced ideology should play a smaler role- ussr wont favor communist states. withdrew soviet troops from east european bases to save money
fall of berlin wall 1989symbolized end of cold war. eastern germany embraced perestroika and glasnost. when democratic elections held in hungary was announced, mass movement from east germany to hungary to get to west germany. as a result east german gov forced to announce greater freedom of movement for east germans. 9th nov east berliners flooded check points and went to west germany (some dismantled the wall).
end of warsaw pact 1991hungary poland and east germany rejected communism. military cooperation ceased in 1990
soviet reaction to fall of berlin wall gorbachev was praised of the break up of eastern europe. however in russia communist didnt like perestroika and glasnst(made comm weak) so 'gang of eight' tried to overthrow gorbachev by forming a gov while he was out of moscow. it lasted three days because the future president of russia yeltsin declaredit illegal.
fall of soviet unionafter gorbachev returned he announced to still save comm but yeltsin already had authority(seen as hero). gorbachev attempted to form new constitution but the leaders of latvia and ukaraine said no a a result gorbachev resigned as president in 1991
end of cold war fall of soviet union stopped conflict because the only superhero left was US