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Updated 2007-03-23 09:27

Summary

A personal study guide for the MMW2 final with Cohen. Well, here we go!

Greece, Part One

TermDefinition and/or Significance
ClassicalClassis, Latin. Means division, class. It is also a time period of Greece, which encompasses 500-300 BCE. This period is also the high point of Athenian culture, Peloponnesian, and the defeat of Athens.
Sui GenerisLatin for "of its own kind", a way of studying antiquity in its purist form.
Mythscredible, have truth claims, and are authoritative
FictionNo credibility, no truth claims, no authority
LegendsNo credibility, truth claims, no authority
HistoryCredible, truth claims, no authority
KnowledgeA socially approved statement that can be argued
Truthhas no dependency on society, but is accepted, cannot be argued, timeless and placeless.
Hesiod8th century BCE Writer. Author of Theogeny.
WOrks and DaysAnother piece written by Hesiod about everyday life.
Cronusthe son of Uranus and Gaia. Castrates his father following his mother's will.
Cronus as a mythmakerSpeaks to his mother on p.7 with powerful words, which, according to Cohen, makes him a mythmaker.
MythoiWords
Mythosspeech
CottusSon of Cronus, leader of the 100 arms who fight against the olympian gods. Makes a powerful speech (mythos), making him a mythmaker.
Zeusgreek god
AnthropocentricGods and humans are like. Theogeny shows how gods came out of void and begin to act human like.
NormativeA story becomes normative when a society or social group believes a certain myth.
Sophocles496-406 BCE. A Greek Playwright, wrote 3 tragedies. Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone.
memorize

Burial in Ancient Greece

TermDefinition/Significance
PsycheHuman Soul
HadesThe underworld that houses the spirits of the dead.
CharonThe man who ferries the psyche to Hades.
AcheronThe river that Charon ferries psyches to Hades across.
ObolusCoin placed on eyes of the dead to pay for the ferry.
memorize

Antigone, the Play

TermDefinition/Significance
Kreon's PrideClaims to be truthgiver because he is the lawmaker as king. The state is of prime importance to him. Believes love can only be seen once law is properly enforced. Antigone and Kreon disagree over thhis matter, and thus the conflict comes into play.
Kreon's RealizationHe realizes that he has no right in making these laws. Ordeal of human vs. divine. He loses all that was important to him.
ThebesA city in which Antigone takes place.
IsmeneSister of Antigone
EteoklesBrother of Antigone
PolyneicesOther Brother of Antigone, doesn't get proper burial.
HaimonSon of Kreon, fiance of Antigone
KreonTyrannical ruler of Thebes
TiresiasA blind Theban prophet
PolisCity state (Singular)
PoleisCity state (Plural)
BarbarianAll those outside of Athens
TyrannyCruel and oppressive rule. eg. Kreon
DemocracyRule of the people, signaled the end of birth privileges.
memorize

Side Note:

Conflicts in Antigone (vs.)
Who/whatWho/what
AntigoneKreon
KreonHaimon
KreonTiresias
AntigoneIsmene
KreonDeath
LoveHatred
Family DevotionCivic Law
Public orderpublic good
Reasonemotion
Oligarchy/TyrannyDemocracy
Individual convictionCommunal Consensus
Sparta(Kreon)Athens(Antigone)
PolisOikos
PublicPrivate
MaleFemale
RationalEmotional
CompetitiveCooperative
memorize

Athenian Democracy

TermDefinition/Significance
Mycenaean Civilization1800-1500 BCE. Great city-states, time of Homer.
Dark Ages1100-750 BCE, population at its lowest, culture almost nonexistent.
Archaic Age750 - 480 BCE, Increase in agriculture
Classical Age500-300 BCE, Athens at its height of power.
AtticaAthens
PeloponneseA large peninsula in the south of Greece which included Sparta.
1st PP War461-446 BCE Athens defeats Sparta
2nd PP War431-422 BCE Sparta defeated Athens
MonarchyGovernment ruled by one main ruler, ended in 638 BCE (Athens)
OligarchyGovernment ruled by a group of people.
AristocratsSupreme in rank and often ruled under an oligarchy.
Solon630 - 560 BCE. Made a change in Athenian government. Anyone with land could now vote. Led to democracy in Athens.
ThucydidesWrote the Funeral Oration of Pericles. Looks at the great Athenian democracy.
PericlesA general who led an army that defeated Sparta.
XenophonConstitution of the Lacaedemonians: Describes the social and governmental structure of Sparta: Main focus on raising warriors.
LycurgusA Spartan lawmaker.
memorize

Greece, Part 2

TermDefinition/Significance
LaconiaSparta
LacaedemoniansSpartans
HelotSlaves of Sparta
EphorsSpartan Magistrates
Making of a Spartan WarriorConcept where children were raised entirely to become warriors. This made Sparta proficient during wartime.
memorize

Classical Age - 500-300 BCE

TermSignificance/Definition
Government of 30Athens was conquered by Sparta, there was tight unjust oligarchic rule from 404-403 BCE.
Death of SocratesHe was killed for opposing Athens
High pt. of Athenian Culture480-404 BCE.
Socrates in the Spartan ContextHe had friends who also opposed Athens.
AlcibidesBad general in Athens
CritiasThe main member in the government of 30.
Aristophane the BirdsSocrates is a "hippie" of Athens.
PlatoSecond major philosopher, started a university.
Aristotle3rd major philosopher after Socrates and Plato.
GadflyTerm used to describe Socrates' annoying behavior and questioning others.
Delphic OraclePlace where Apollo said "there is no man wiser than Socrates"
Platonic DialogueBack and forth questioning and answering with more questions. (Euthyphro in the Trial and Death of Socrates)
DemosPeople
PhilosophyLove of Wisdom
LogosReason
Knowledge vs. TruthSocrates moves from knowledge to truth through logos.
Logos vs. MythosMythoi are social, Logos are not.
SophiaWisdom
PhronesisPractical wisdom, ability to think.
Platonic IdeaHeaven of ideas (truth)
Monster (Monstrum/Monere)To warn
Kreon as a MonsterHe had no power in the end, and wouldn't accept other views.
memorize

The Trial and Death of Socrates

TermSignificance
EuthyphroHad an argument with Socrates about what it means to be pious.
PietyVirtue
ApologySocrates defending himself as blameless for his execution
memorize

Euripedes (484-406 BCE) Bacchae (407 BCE)

TermSignificance
First principlesFood-earth (Tiresias), drink-water/wine (Dionysus)
Pentheusking of Thebes at the time of writing. Wants women to stay home (domestic). He is influenced by Dionysus to dress up as a woman, rejecting his own values.
Mysogynyhatred of women
TiresiasSeer, foresees what will happen.
CadmusFather of Pentheus.
DionysusGod of Wine
The god and his cultWorship vitality, reject tight rule and Pentheus.
Bacchae/Bacchants/MaenadsThe women in the hills dancing and rejecting Pentheus' command.
AmbiguousDionysus with two meanings: Divine v. Human, Greek v. Foreign, Male v. Female, Loving v. Cruel, Intoxication v. Sobriety.
Dionysian WisdomYou are mad if you cannot abide by Dionysus' ambiguities.
Quotidian SatisfactionRealizing there is no order and just ambiguity, the ability to live peacefully everyday.
Women in the OikosHome, the way Pentheus wants it.
Order vs. Divine Law in the BacchaeAcceptance of Ambiguity
GenreStyle of Writing
PandoraShe gave women to men to keep them from becoming gods, as if women were a "box of disease". Emotional, not reasonable.
memorize